25. – 28.03.2024 | University of Vienna

"Substituting the digital archive for memory: New media practices shaping youths' understandings of war and genocide" (Keynote)

Karen Krasny, Sonya Sachar

Stephen Spielberg’s Visual History Archive project begun in the 1990s in collaboration with the University of Southern California’s Shoah Foundation established digital genocide studies and the use of archival testimony to educate youth about the Holocaust. In this paper, we engage in a critical exploration of a range of digital representations of the Holocaust intended for adolescent and children’s audiences. Through a selection of digitally recorded testimony, virtual field trips/museums, hyperlinks between two- and three-dimensional texts, YouTube videos of YA authors of historical fiction and works of non-fiction, video games, and interactive holographic images, we discuss our framework for analyzing the potential and limits of these media to effectively communicate with young audiences through a vicarious exploration of historical place and space. We contextualize these digital artifacts within an interdisciplinary perspective on Holocaust education as we make connections to world history, social studies, language arts, ethics, geo-politics, and aesthetics and invite attendees to contemplate the possible consequences of substituting the digital archive for memory. The imminent passing of Holocaust survivors and eyewitnesses has invariably heightened the desire to leverage digital media in the preservation of the Shoah for post-Holocaust generations. In response, we demonstrate how artistic and cultural representations emerging from new media and memory practices have shaped both our Holocaust understandings and the future of the past.

"Teaching Media Literacy in the Age of Algorithmic Platforms" (Keynote)

Philippe Wampfler

In recent years, digital platforms have moved away from a model based on people's acquaintances and replaced it with algorithmic content delivery. A paradigmatic example of this is TikTok, where the measurement of interactions with videos leads to a fit between the content and interests of the users. The success of TikTok impacts on other services that are important for young people.

This new form of platform requires specific skills. Using examples and research literature, the lecture discusses these skills and answers the question of how young people can learn to deal with the specific challenges of algorithmic control. The focus is on hidden and open ideologies, which are spread through an algorithmically amplified form of influencer marketing – with both commercial and political intentions. The example of Andrew Tate illustrates how strong the influence of these ideologies is on youth culture. At the same time, the competent handling of algorithms whose functioning is not explicitly documented requires reflection and experimental media literacy.

This shows that conventional forms of teaching media literacy often fail as a consequence of the very dynamic and opaque functioning of algorithms. For this reason, this contribution also asks how educational institutions can accompany and support young people in building relevant skills. The fact that adults cannot directly access young people’s algorithmically tuned media worlds leads to a complexity that must be reflected and considered in the design of learning environments. The lecture proposes an approach that does not assume that teachers know exactly how platforms work but can provide young people with tools to help them develop and put into practice these essential skills.

"Agency and youth revisited: mediating social action in material environments" (Keynote)

Suzana Jovicic, Julia Sonnleitner

It is popular belief that youth’s exposure to media is detrimental to their development, as "youth" is understood as a liminal phase of life that needs to be regulated, stabilized and protected. Within these narratives, we find sediments of "media effects research" – a deterministic view of the causes of media technology on human behavior which has been commonly rejected in media and communications studies. Academic discourses have shifted to framing media as practice (Couldry 2004), thus emphasizing the social embeddedness of media and, consequently, the unpredictability of media effects. Social constructivist concepts thus relocate agency from media to humans. Within this paradigm, suggestions of material agency, evoking associations of the earlier “media effects” discussion, are therefore often met with resistance.

Recently, however, there has been an increased sense that materiality does matter when it comes to understanding agency in (young) people’s media environments. In this presentation, we explore models of agency that seek a middle ground: neither ascribing animistic properties to material objects, nor rendering them invisible or as inert matter. We draw on examples from our ethnographic research: on the one hand, (media) artifacts produced in childhood that keep mediating social action throughout people’s lives; on the other, digitally designed interfaces navigated by flaneuring youth. Understanding youth as a relational and evocative category, we conceive agency as being distributed between subjects, objects, and the material and social worlds that both are embedded in – infrastructures, design, and social relations.

"Digital presentation practices – Embodiment, Participation, Storytelling" (Keynote)

Matthias Leichtfried, Florian Mayrhofer, Georg Wendt

While formal in‐person student presentations have not disappeared from the classroom, asynchronous and digitally‐mediated performances (on e.g. TikTok or Instagram) have arguably become the more prevalent form for cohorts of Gen Z and Alpha. In further consideration of an evolving world through digitalization which has also an impact on work (e.g. meetings and job interviews conducted online), the Austrian Ministry of Education answered the need for digital competencies and literacy through the new mandatory subject on "Digitale Grundbildung" (digital education) for secondary schools. One main aspect in that curriculum is the field of 'digital (self‐)presentation practices'.

Although the curriculum itself draws the attention to a threefold perspective on digitalization according to the "Frankfurt Triangle for education in a digitally networked world" (Brinda et al., 2019), there is a certain bias towards operational skills – "to structure texts and presentations, either alone or in teams, incorporating images, graphics and other objects" (BGBl. II No. 267/2022, 17).
Following a transformative understanding of education that goes beyond formation and sees it "as an experience that the subject comes out of change; a change which not only affects one’s thinking, but rather the subject’s relation to the world, to others, and to itself" (Koller, 2017, p.33), we believe that other subjects' educators ought to offer integrative support. In particular, a critical understanding of how online identity construction is shaped by both a plaƞorm's social context and its technical affordances is key for students to be able to engage in digital discourse and take critical stances.

To delimit this wide‐reaching research interest, we will highlight three aspects that we consider to be central for digital (self‐) presentation practices: embodiment, participation and (digital) storytelling.

Whereas the digital sphere is sometimes perceived as immaterial and "[associated] with disembodiment or at least a devaluation of embodiment" (Floridi, 2014, p. 39), we will argue that the body of users and recipients plays an important role in the digital sphere. Regarding the aspect of participation, we will consider a differentiation along three axes – activity, agency, and social valence (see, e.g., Lutz & Hoffmann, 2017) – and consider various forms of (non‐) participation. Finally, we consider (digital) storytelling as an ambivalent phenomenon that facilitates the access of information and communication while simultaneously describing "constructed narration", whose "narrative features are rather projected or constructed into the facts." (Früh, 2014, p. 93)

BMBWF (Bundesministerium für Bildung, WissenschaŌ und Forschung). (2022.) Verordnung des Bundesministers für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung, mit der die Verordnung über die Lehrpläne der Mittelschulen sowie die Verordnung über die Lehrpläne der Allgemeinbildenden Höheren Schulen geändert werden. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/eli/bgbl/II/2022/267/20220706.
Brinda, Torsten, Niels Brüggen, Ira Diethelm, Thomas Knaus, Sven Kommer, Christine Kopf, Petra Missomelius, Rainer Leschke, Friederike Tilemann, and Andreas Weich. (2019.) Frankfurt‐Dreieck zur Bildung in der digital vernetzten Welt: Ein interdisziplinäres Modell. Gesellschaft für Informatik. doi:10.18420/INFOS2019‐A1.
Floridi, L. (2014.) The Fourth Revolution : How the Infosphere Is Reshaping Human Reality (First edition). OUP Oxford. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=772840&site=ehost‐live
Früh, Werner. (2014.) Narration und Storytelling. In Werner Früh, Felix Frey, and Jette Blümler (Eds.), Narration und Storytelling: Theorie und empirische Befunde (pp. 63–119). Unterhaltungsforschung 10. Köln: Herbert von Halem Verlag.
Koller, Hans-Christoph. (2017). Bildung as a Transformative Process. In A. L. Rosée, T. Fuhr, & E. W.
Taylor (Hrsg.), Transformative learning meets Bildung: An interna onal exchange (pp. 33–42). Sense
Lutz, Christoph & Hoffmann, Christian. (2017.) The Dark Side of Online Participation: Exploring Non‐,
Passive and Negative Participation. Information Communication and Society 20, 876‐897.

"Approaches to Implementing Computational Empowerment" (Interactive Workshop)

Mirjam Duvivié, Fares Kayali, Selina Gartner, Elisabeth Günther, Barbara Göbl, Petra-Francesca Weixelbraun, Pelin Yüksel Arslan

Questions arising at the intersection of digitalization and education receive increasing attention in scientific and popular discourse. There is an ongoing call to provide young people with meaningful information regarding topics such as privacy, usage, as well as the ethical and societal impact of emerg- ing technologies (Caspersen et al., 2022). However, further research is necessary to determine how to implement those topics in formal education and answer the call for computational empowerment of young people (Schaper et al., 2022) in order to foster "Bildung".

"Bildung", as (Koller, 2012) frames it, is a transformational process where an individual engages in learning processes, to acquire the means to overcome a challenge. However, "Bildung" goes beyond immediate short-term problem-solving and supports individuals in living self-determinedly, participate in decision-making, critically analyze and reflect on a societal level (Klafki, 2019). This ties together neatly with the considerations of Iversen, Smith, and Dindler (2018) who introduce the concept of Computational Empowerment (CE) as "a concern for how children are empowered to make critical and informed decisions about the role of technology in their lives" (p.9).

This panel addresses the question how CE can be implemented in different educational settings. To this end, four projects affiliated with University of Vienna’s Computational Empowerment Lab shed light upon various approaches to implementing CE according to Klafki’s understanding of "Bildung". Among others, the role of CE in teacher education, usage of methods and practices of participatory and co-design, as well as possible hindrances and difficulties for an apt implementation of CE in edu- cational experiences are discussed based on 4 exemplary projects:

In the "ELEMeNT" project, BAfEP (schools for elementary and early childhood education) stu- dents self-determinedly choose, address and work with a (digital) problem in elementary education. Building on participatory approaches, students advance their own digital literacy and learn how to foster digital competencies, such as slow computing (Kitchin & Fraser, 2020), also in early education. During this learning process, students get insight about CE in elementary education, often with a strong focus on how to set and learn boundaries which enable a joyful and safe use of digital tools.

"Working Sober" is a project, wherein participatory methods are used to design a digital Educa- tional Escape Game to support drug prevention programs in vocational education. In the spirit of CE, designers include young people from vocational schools as well as training personnel from the institute of drug prevention in upper Austria. Adolescent and adult designers reflect on substance (ab-)use and gaming experiences to negotiate and create a usable tool for workshops regarding drug prevention in vocational schools. Insights about participatory game-design processes for purposes of formal education as well as CE through collaborative game-design will be shared.

The project "Serious Game Changers" seeks to enable CE in a playful and low-threshold envi- ronment in secondary schools through participatory methods. Building on young learners’ gaming expertise, the project allows adolescents to take up a more self-determined role in their learning expe- riences where they devise new game-based learning concepts on eye-level with teachers and researchers. Students play and analyze digital games and experiment with e.g. podcasts, Let’s Plays and digital game components in order to explore the learning potential of these media formats with regard to subject-specific topics and digital literacies.

"Teaching Digital Thinking" aims to develop prototypes for integrating digital skills into the cur- riculum during the digital transformation process. As part of this objective, the course ’Educational Robots and Social Diversity’ has been designed as a pilot project to provide practical applications for the use of educational robots in secondary education, with the goal of enhancing students’ computa- tional empowerment and thinking skills.

Although the projects are very different in nature and target group, they share the understanding of Participatory Design (PD) as key factor for the implementation of CE in "Bildung". Considering CE and PD through the lenses of those multi-faceted projects brings insights into a multitude of stages: from early child-care to teacher education - are included to find ways of implementing CE and PD in formal education. In this symposium, we advance the concept of CE by outlining multiple perspectives on, and approaches to, implementing CE in education. Following a holistic understanding of "Bildung" the symposium addresses the interdependence of various educational stages as well as stakeholders, such as learners and educators. Whether BAfEP students, youth within formal education or teachers in training, this symposium shows that learners and educators at all stages of the educational career can benefit from an empowering, self-determined approach to digital education.

Digitalization transforms the political landscape as well as many aspects of every-day personal life and daily decision-making. CE in the context of "Bildung" stands for critically-reflected and sovereign usage of technologies and creatively, collaboratively shaping the future. This panel shares practical insights on CE from lessons learned in the four projects and addresses the question: how can Computational Empowerment be implemented in various educational settings?

Caspersen, M. E., Diethelm, I., Gal-Ezer, J., McGettrick, A., Nardelli, E., Passey, D., . . . Webb, M. (2022). Informatics Reference Framework for School. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2023-07-18, from https://dl.acm.org/doi/book/10.1145/3592625  doi: 10.1145/3592625
Iversen, O. S., Smith, R. C., & Dindler, C. (2018, August). From computational thinking to computational empowerment: a 21 st century PD agenda. In Proceedings of the 15th Partic- ipatory Design Conference: Full Papers - Volume 1 (pp. 1–11). Hasselt and Genk Belgium: ACM. Retrieved 2023-06-13, from https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3210586.3210592 doi: 10.1145/3210586.3210592
Kitchin, R., & Fraser, A. (2020). Slow Computing: Why We Need Balanced Digital Lives (1st ed.). Bris- tol University Press. Retrieved 2023-07-26, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/ identifier/9781529211276/type/book  doi: 10.46692/9781529211276
Klafki, W. (2019). Allgemeine Erziehungswissenschaft. Systematische und historische Abhandlungen: herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Karl-Heinz Braun, Frauke Stübig und Heinz Stübig. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.  Retrieved 2023-07-18, from http://link.springer.com/10
  doi: 10.1007/978-3-658-23165-1
Koller, H.-C. (2012). Anders werden. zur erforschung transformativer bildungsprozesse. In (p. 19-34).
Barbara Budrich-Esser. doi: doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvd7w919
Schaper, M.-M., Smith, R. C., Tamashiro, M. A., Van Mechelen, M., Lunding, M. S., Bilstrup, K.-E. K., . . . Iversen, O. S. (2022, December). Computational empowerment in practice: Scaffolding teenagers’ learning about emerging technologies and their ethical and societal im- pact. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 34 , 100537. Retrieved 2023-06-20, from https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212868922000551 doi: 10.1016/ j.ijcci.2022.100537

"Pose und Spektakel. Aktivistische Posen und gesellschaftliches Positioniertsein auf und mit Social Media" (Interaktiver Workshop)

Viktoria Flasche, Anna Carnap & Sina Kleinitzke

Social Media kann als spektakuläre, affektgeladene, ökonomischen Interessen folgende Aushandlungsarena (il-)legitimer Positionierungen und Zugehörigkeiten verstanden werden, die kreativ-explorative, transgressive, affirmative, reaktionäre, exklusive, kritische, destruktive oder/und verletzende Praktiken hervorbringt. Auf Social Media Plattformen sichtbar zu werden bedeutet, sich im Bild oder im Video zu zeigen, sich darzustellen und zu positionieren. Den scheinbar unendlichen und individuellen Möglichkeiten der Darstellung stehen spezifische, vorstrukturierte Positionierungs (un-)möglichkeiten gegenüber: einerseits durch kulturell-normativ zur Verfügung stehende Präsentationsmodi (wer darf sich wie zeigen?), andererseits durch ein algorithmisch gesteuertes Ranking (wer wird “nach oben” gerankt, also gesehen; wer wird “nach unten” gerankt, also nicht oder weniger gesehen?).
Social Media Plattformen erzeugen u.a. so im Rahmen ökonomischer Strategien reaktive, mediale Konvergenzräume. Sie stellen sich mittels prognostisch operierender Algorithmen auf die Anwender*innen ein. Es besteht die Gefahr, dass sie – mit Bezug auf Rancière (2008) – gerade keine “Bühne für das Verhandeln zwischen Polizei und Politik” darstellen (Sonderegger 2012: 117), sondern lediglich die Sichtbarkeit der bereits Anteilhabenden noch verstärken (Jörissen 2020).

Klima-Aktivismus ist sowohl lokal, national als auch global über Social Media Plattformen vernetzt. Neben den Protesten im Stadtraum artikulieren Aktivist*innen ihr Anliegen medial in Bildern und Videos, da im Kontext des politischen Protestes Bilder unerlässlich für Prozesse der Mobilisierung und Solidarisierung sind (Schankweiler 2019).
Im Workshop wollen wir uns zum einen dem widerständigen Gehalt der Selbst- Darstellungen und Posen widmen: Welche Posen gelten als politisches Engagement, welche Posen als das Einnehmen bloßer Zitate? Welche werden als gelungen und angemessen oder als oberflächlich und verfehlt gelesen?
Posen sind popkulturell gefärbt, symbolisch/vergeschlechtlicht aufgeladen (Kohout 2019), durch die Dekontextualisierung der Geste (Zirfas & Jörissen 2007: 157ff.)

"Partizipieren lernen? Digital-mediales Empowerment im Schulunterricht." (Interaktiver Workshop)

Robert König

Empowerment zur Partizipation in Bildungseinrichtungen für Jugendliche betrifft besonders die Frage der Ausbildung von Lehrer:innen für eine partizipative Unterrichts- gestaltung. Ich beziehe mich grundlegend auf das Modell des holistischen Empowerment von Individuen nach Fendler und verbinde es mit dem Ansatz einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) und dessen pädagogische Schlüsselkomptenzen für Lehrer:innen und Lernende.

Der wesentliche Lebensbereich "Medien und Digitalität" muss in der pädagogisch-didaktischen Ausbildung alle Schulfächer in ihren je spezifischen Anforderungen mitumfassen. Zentral ist in jedem Fach dabei die Frage, wie man junge Menschen dazu einlädt, partizipativ und gestaltend an der Medienwirklichkeit teilzunehmen und weder Schule bloß als Theoretisierungseinrichtung noch Menschen als bloße Konsument:innen digitaler Medien zu erachten. Das heißt es, Nachhaltigkeit in der Lebensweltgestaltung auch im Sinne von Medienkompetenzen zu begreifen und so Medienkompetenz als Schlüsselfähigkeit aufgeklärter Menschen zu forcieren. Inhaltliche Grundlage hierfür wird Sigrid Kannengießers Monographie Digitale Medien und Nachhaltigkeit sein (dies. 2022).

Mein interaktiver Workshop wird sich in 180 Minuten daher der Frage widmen, welche spezifischen Nachhaltigkeitskompetenzen auf dem Feld der Bildung in Medien und Digitalität in die akademische Ausbildung von Lehrer:innen aufgenommen werden müssen, um diese Lehrer:innen – unabhängig von ihren Fächern – dazu einzuladen, aktive Partizipation an medialer Wirklichkeit in ihren Unterricht zu integrieren.

Dies betrifft folgende Themenblöcke, die je Schulfach unterschiedlich zur Geltung kommen können:

  • Digitalität als Handlungsraum verstehen: wie können Lehrer:innen und Schüler:innen gemeinsam digitalisierte Lebensformen als Weisen der Gestaltung von Realität anhand unterschiedlicher Informationswirklichkeiten erarbeiten (Stichworte: Big Data, Virtualisierung, Symbolische Formen, Künstliche Intelligenz, informatisch-mathematische Kompetenzen, technische Aspekte, Apps, Videospiele, Kunst,…).
    Ziel: Erarbeitung (1) von Schlüsselbereichen der digitalen Lebenswelt, die in jeden Unterricht eine Aufnahme finden müssen und (2) von digital-medialen Kompetenzen für Lehrende anhand des vorgestellten Modells Nachhaltigkeitsbildung
  • Kommunikationslehre: wie kann im Schulunterricht Kommunikationskompetenz als zentrale und aktive Fähigkeit zur Teilnahme an medialer Wirklichkeitsgestaltung implementiert werden (Stichworte: Psychologie zentraler Kommunikationsformen, Rhetorik, Logik, Argumentation, Manipulation, …).
    Ziel: Erarbeitung eines Kataloges von zentralen psychologischen, sozialen und kommunikativen Kompetenzen für den durch digitale Medien transformierten Kommunikationsraum
  • Publizistik: wie kann Schulunterricht Menschen in ihrer Medienwirklichkeit als aktiv gestaltende Publizist:innen erachten und ausbilden (Stichworte: journalistische Kompetenzen, redaktionelles Denken und Arbeiten, Medienkonsument:in und Medienagent:in sein, Social Media, sozio-ökonomische und juristische Faktoren publizistischer Wirklichkeit,…)
    Ziel: Erarbeitung von spezifischen journalistisch-publizistischen Kompetenzen bei Lehrkräften, um in einer überkomplexen Medienwirklichkeit unterrichtend anknüpfen zu können
  • Marketing und PR: wie kann Schulunterricht die mediengeleitete Ökonomisierung von Informationen thematisieren und aktiv an ihr mitwirken bzw. sie kritisieren (Stichworte: mediale Inszenierungsformen, Werbung, Vermarktung, Unterhaltungsmedien, seductive interaction design,…)
    Ziel: Erarbeitung von (selbst-)kritischen Kompetenzen im Sinne der Nachhaltigkeitsbildung, die sich vor allem dem Umgang mit medialen Manipulationsformen widmen
  • Kybernetik: wie kann im Schulunterricht der Zusammenhang von technologischer Entwicklung und medialer Wirklichkeit thematisiert und aktiv an ihm gearbeitet werden (Stichworte: Optimierung von Körper und Psyche, medizin-, rechts- und wirtschaftsethische Fragen, existenzielle Sinnstiftungsdimensionen,…)
    Ziel: Erarbeitung von anthropologischen Kompetenzen einer Sinnstiftung in der medial-digitalen Lebenswirklichkeit nach dem Modell einer "digitalen Anthropologie"

Der Workshop wird diese fünf Themengebiete wie folgt erarbeiten:

  • Einführungsvortrag zur Vorstellung des Zugangs und der Themenbereiche: 40min
  • Aufteilung in 5 Gruppen nach den fünf Themengebieten: 5min
  • Gruppenphase: Erarbeitung der angegebenen Kompetenzbereiche als Lehr- und Lernziele sowie Vorüberlegungen zu ihrer didaktischen Umsetzung auf Basis eigener Recherchen sowie Material, das der Workshopleiter mitbringt: 45min
  • Pause: 10min
  • Präsentation und Sammlung der Ergebnisse: 10min je Gruppe
  • Abschlussdiskussion und Ergebnissicherung: 30min

Im Anschluss werden die festgehaltenen Ergebnisse vom Workshopleiter aufbereitet und an alle verteilt. Ergänzt werden die einzelnen Phasen durch Erfahrungen und best-practice Beispiele aus dem eigenen schulischen Medienunterricht des Workshopleiters.

Der Workshop dient insgesamt der Erarbeitung eines Themenspektrums, das die Vielfalt der Anforderungen medialer Lebenswirklichkeit zeigt, systematisch darstellt und zulässt, pädagogisch-didaktische Empfehlungen und Anregungen für einen nachhaltigkeits- und partizipationsorientierten Schulunterricht daraus abzuleiten.

Gerade in einer zeitgenössischen Medienrealität kann Schule sich nicht gegen deren rasante Entwicklungen verschließen und das Feld unreflektiert den überwältigenden Herausforderungen der digitalen Landschaft überlassen. Das Primärziel ist also, für Lehrer:innen und Schüler:innen den Zugang einer partizipativen Medienkompetenz nach dem Modell nachhaltiger Bildung (BNE) zu ermöglichen, die es zulässt, sich als aktiv gestaltende, ethisch verantwortliche und normativ regulierende Akteur:innen zu begreifen und als solche tätig zu werden.

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Borchers, Nils S. et al. (2021): Transformation der Medien. Medien der Transformation. Frankfurt a. M.: Westend.
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"The Ethical (Fan) Researcher's Toolkit" (Interactive Workshop)

Ariane Manutscheri, Christina Schuster

"The Ethical (Fan) Researcher's Toolkit" is an interactive workshop designed as an introduction to the field of fan studies, while simultaneously opening an avenue for more experienced fan studies researchers to explore new ventures in their field specifically, and online and media research more generally. Across the span of 180 minutes (incl. breaks), we aim to showcase the valuable contributions that fan studies can offer to researchers from diverse disciplines with a strong emphasis on research ethics and media literacy as a practice and pedagogy. Participants will engage in a collaborative exploration of available methodological tools in the field, drawing on those employed in the workshop hosts' respective dissertation projects.

The workshop will begin with an introductory session for which participants are encouraged to share an object or image that best represents their fannish engagement or their research focus and gives their colleagues an insight into their work (memorabilia or artefacts), thus allowing them to share their interests and establish first connections as well as playfully explore the basics of an autoethnographic approach. During this session participants will also have the opportunity to share their expectations for the workshop and contextualize their needs and aims from the vantage point of their respective disciplinary backgrounds.

A brief introduction to fan studies will provide participants with essential information about the field, enabling especially those less familiar with the subject matter to understand the importance and relevance of fandom as a cultural phenomenon. Key concepts, such as "transformative works" and "fan activism", will be defined and contextualized using case studies to provide a solid base for the further stages of the workshop.

By imagining themselves as producers, recipients, platform hosts, and researchers of fannish content, participants will explore the various perspectives that come to bear on online and media research: Which investments do researchers need to consider along their own positioning and role with regard to (online) media as the object of their research?

The workshop will provide the chance to examine what it means to do ethical research within fan studies by drawing on the workshop facilitators' own research experiences (informed participant consent - analyzing consent forms, information sheets and working with ethics commissions).

Subsequently, the workshop will turn to tools of data collection/handling on the one hand and applications in integrating fan studies into the secondary & tertiary classroom on the other hand. We invite participants to reflect on strategies and concrete examples for incorporating fan studies into their own respective pedagogical practices.

As stated at the onset, "The Ethical (Fan) Researcher's Toolkit" is committed to offering an exploration of the question "What can fan studies offer researchers working with (online) media across disciplines?". While this cannot provide an exhaustive manual, it will aim to offer researchers a toolkit centering on ethical considerations, data collection and methodological decisions. We wish to give participants the opportunity to engage in dialogue, exchange ideas, collaborate on various aspects of fan research at various stages and, most importantly, reflect on the ways these can benefit their own endeavors.

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Duffett, Mark. Understanding Fandom: An Introduction to the Study of Media Fan Culture. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.
Dym, Brianna, and Casey Fiesler. "Ethical and Privacy Considerations for Research Using Online Fandom Data." Transformative Works and Cultures 33 (2020). Web. 29 June 2023. https://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/1733/2445
Jacobs, Naomi. "Interdisciplinary Methodologies for the Fan Studies Bricoleur." Transformative Works and Cultures 33 (2020). Web. 29 June 2023. https://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/1665.
Jenkins, Henry. "Fandom, Negotiation, and Participatory Culture." A Companion to Media Fandom and Fan Studies. Ed. Paul Booth. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell, 2018. 13-26.
Markham, Annette, and Elizabeth Buchanan. "Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (Version 2.0)." Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR). Ethics Committee and AoIR general membership. 2012. 1-19. Web. 4 July 2023. www.aoir.org/reports/ethics2.pdf.
McConnel, Jen. "Fan Spaces as Third Spaces: Tapping into the Creative Community of Fandom." English Journal 109.1 (2019): 45-51. Web. 29 June 2023. https://publicationsncte.org/content/journals/10.58680/ej201930273.
Nielsen, Ej. "Dear researcher: Rethinking engagement with fan authors." Journal of Fandom Studies 4.3 (2016): 233-249. Web. 4 July 2023. https://www-ingentaconnect-com.uaccess.univie.ac.at/content/intellect/jfs/2016/00000004/00000003/art00001.
Turk, Tisha. "Interdisciplinarity in Fan Studies." A Companion to Media Fandom and Fan Studies. Ed. Paul Booth. Newark: John Wiley & Sons, 2018. 539-551.
Sandvoss, Cornel, Johnathan Gray, and C. Lee Harrington. "Introduction: Why Still Study Fans?" Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World. 2nd ed. Ed. Johnathan Gray, Cornel Sandvoss, and C. Lee Harrington. New York: New York UP, 2017. 1-26.

"The BeReal App as Dispositive: Walkthroughs and Joint Interpretation" (Interaktiver Workshop)

Moritz Meister, Thomas Slunecko, Marian Fetka, Ida Leibetseder, Lisa Zach, Lenka Kovarikova, Robin Hietz

"Deine Freunde in echt" – diesen Perspektivenwechsel von Ästhetik zur Realität verspricht die 2020 am Markt erschienene Social-Media-App BeReal, die 2022 zur App des Jahres gekürt wurde. Der Name ist Programm: als „authentische“ und filterfreie Alternative platziert sich BeReal als Konter zum Haupt- strom der aktuellen Social Media Welt mit ihren geschönten, gestylten und gekünstelten Aufnahmen. Bei BeReal hingegen erhält jede*r App-User*in einmal täglich – zu einem beliebigen, aber community- weit synchronisierten Zeitpunkt – die Aufforderung, innerhalb von zwei Minuten ein Bild in Echtzeit zu posten, wobei Front- und Rückkamera gleichzeitig auslösen. Durch Posten des eigenen Beitrages werden einem die Beiträge befreundeter User*innen angezeigt; so lange, bis es erneut ‚time to BeReal‘ heißt. Mit mehr als 10 Millionen Downloads erfreut sich die 'Anti Social Media' App reger Beliebtheit und folgt in ihrer Konzeption scheinbar den wachsenden Anliegen der Gen Z: reduzierte Screentime, Spontanität und Authentizität. BeReal passt somit in den #YML Konferenz Themenstrang "That’s how they do it nowadays": Media ideologies of and about young media actors.

Wie viel dieser benevolenten Wertehaltung und des originellen Versprechens der App, seinen Freund*innen zu zeigen, wer man*frau wirklich ist, im täglichen App-Alltag übrigbleibt und auf welche Weisen die App neue Formen von Verfügbarkeitszwang, Hörigkeit oder 'Fear of Missing Out' transpor- tiert, wird in diesem interaktiven Workshop anhand von per Walkthroughs erhobenem Screenshot-Ma- terial zur Diskussion gestellt. Die App wird dabei als multimediales Mikrodispositiv begriffen und die Interaktion mit ihr schrittweise von den Forschenden erkundet. Zuletzt wird versucht, die so gewonne- nen Ergebnisse in eine gesellschaftliche Makroperspektive einzubetten.

Unser Workshop ist dabei als Forschungswerkstatt angelegt, einer bewährten Tradition der qualitativ- interpretativen Sozialforschung folgend. Zu Beginn findet eine kompakte Einführung in die Kulturpsy- chologie und ihren Medienbegriff statt, sowie daran anschließend an den Foucault’schen Dispositiv- Begriff. Von hier aus wird die Verbindung zur Walkthrough-Method hergestellt, welche in jüngeren Publikationen von uns methodologisch weiterentwickelt wurde. Im folgenden Hauptteil des Workshops stellen Studierende des Master-Anwendungsseminars zu kulturpsychologischen App-Analysen (SoSe23) Material aus ihrem gemeinsamen Forschungsprojekt resp. Qualifikationsarbeiten zu BeReal vor, welches gemeinsam mit dem Publikum ‚durchlaufen‘ und interpretiert wird. Den Abschluss bildet eine offene Diskussion der Methode und des Materials, sowie darauf aufbauend der Frage nach den – unterstellten? kommerzialisierten? – Medienideologien von Jugendlichen und junge Erwachsenen.

"Bullying prevention on TikTok: How can the popular social media platform be used to convey topics on mental health?" (Interactive Workshop)

Marlene Mitterer, Julia Bartosch, Elias Wenighofer

TikTok is one of the fastest-growing social media platforms used by both teenagers and adolescents on an increasingly regular basis. While most TikTok videos are for entertainment purposes, various how- to educational guides can also be found on the platform. These educational videos, if produced according to the prevailing genre conventions on TikTok, have the potential to help young adults cope with problems they face in their day-to-day lives. An especially relevant problem is that of bullying, as it affects many adolescents either actively or passively. Therefore, the purpose of this workshop in the #YouthMediaLife Conference 2024 is to explore how strategies to address bullying can be effectively communicated audio-visually on TikTok. Close attention will be paid to particular textual features necessary for educational communication on TikTok, such as the importance of subtitles as well as how the use of sound and pathos can be applied as persuasive strategies. We will share the results of our micro-genre analysis and mediation project conducted in our masters English Language Competence course: MAGNET. For this study, we applied a qualitative text analysis of a written published WHO manual on the topic of bullying and then examined two popular Tik Tok videos on the same topic. It was found that using medium shots and subtitles is important for effectively communicating the intended message. Conveying pathos by using the second person pronoun as well as background music can boost the virality of a video as it draws in the viewer. In the workshop, we will then share how the results of this genre analysis were used to create a TikTok video, mediating the information from the official manual targeted at teachers into a video targeted at 13- to 14-year-old students. This work can function as a guide on how to create successful TikTok videos in an educational field and can be used as a resource for teachers.

Keywords: genre analysis, TikTok, mental health, audio-visual communication, subtitles, pathos

"Let’s examine how women are represented/erased on Wikipedia" (Interactive Workshop)

Gabrielle Smith-Dluha

This interactive workshop is designed to raise awareness about the gender bias prevalent on Wikipedia and to discuss what we can do about it. Despite its mixed reputation, Wikipedia is often the first place people turn to for information on various topics. As such, Wikipedia plays a critical role in knowledge creation and access for young people across the globe.

However, one of the major concerns surrounding Wikipedia is its gender bias. Approximately 85% of editors on Wikipedia are men (Wikipedia Meta, 2021). This stark gender disparity among editors has resulted in numerous issues related to the content available on Wikipedia, particularly the representation of notable women. A primary problem is simply a lack of Wikipedia pages about significant women (e.g. Adams 2019, Harrison 2019). Furthermore, studies have shown fewer internal links to women across pages (Wagner et al. 2015), and a higher likelihood of pages about women being deleted (Tripodi 2021). Most importantly, a disturbing gender bias is evident in the linguistic, structural, content, and visual representation of the women who do have pages on Wikipedia (Wagner et al. 2015).

In this workshop, we will collectively examine several Wikipedia pages, comparing pages about men to those about women. As the #YouthMediaLife conference is held in Vienna, Austria, we will also explore the absence of pages about notable Austrian women, particularly on English Wikipedia. Lastly, we will discuss strategies to enhance Wikipedia pages and explore ongoing research and social movements dedicated to mitigating gender bias on the platform, including our Department’s Secret Midnight Wikipedia Editing Society.

Overall, the underrepresentation of women on Wikipedia can be seen as an active erasure of women’s significant cultural and scientific contributions. This perpetuates a false narrative for current and future generations, telling us that women have played only a minor role in shaping and driving human cultural and scientific advancement. Let's come together and challenge this narrative

Adams J, Brückner H, Naslund C (2019) Who counts as a notable sociologist on Wikipedia? Gender, Race, and the “Professor Test. Socius 5: 1–14. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2378023118823946 (Accessed 5 July 2023).
Harrison, S. (26 March 2019). "How the Sexism of the Past Reinforces Wikipedia's Gender Gap". Slate Magazine. https://slate.com/technology/2019/03/wikipedia-women-history- notability-gender-gap.html (Accessed 5 July 2023).
Tripodi, F. (2023). Ms. Categorized: Gender, notability, and inequality on Wikipedia. New Media & Society, 25(7), 1687–1707. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448211023772. (Accessed 5 July 2023).
Wagner, C.; Garcia, D.; Jadidi, M.; Strohmaier, M.(2015). "It's a Man's Wikipedia? Assessing Gender Inequality in an Online Encyclopedia". Proceedings of the Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/ICWSM/article/view/14628. (Accessed 5 July 2023).
Wikipedia Meta (2021). Community insights report. URL: https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Community_Insights/Community_Insights_2021_Report/Thriving_Movement#Community_and_Newcomer_Diversity (Accessed 5 July 2023).

"Interaktiver Game-Based Learning Workshop" (Interaktiver Workshop)

Matthias Steinböck, Niku Dorostkar, Alexander Preisinger

Wir erachten die #YML-Konferenz, die sich für die postdigitalen Lebensrealitäten junger Menschen interessiert für den richtigen Ort für einen interdisziplinären, interaktiven Workshop, der den Einsatz von Computerspielen in der Bildung demonstriert, erfahrbar macht und zum Ausprobieren einlädt.

Computerspiele haben eine enorme Vielseitigkeit in ihrer Anwendung bewiesen und werden in verschiedenen ernsthaften Kontexten produktiv eingesetzt, z. B. im (Regel-)Unterricht, bei der Ausbildung am Arbeitsplatz oder auch in der medizinischen Therapie. Spiele wie "Bury Me, My Love", "Assassin's Creed", "VR-Anwendung Lokomotivprüfung ÖBB", "MyoBeatz", "A Juggler's Tale", "There Is No Game", "Baba Is You" uvm. zeigen das Potenzial von Spielen, handlungs- und erfahrungsbasiertes Lernen oder weitere Lernformen zu ermöglichen.
Dennoch: die Mehrheit der kommerziell verfügbaren Spiele stellt die Beschäftigung im Spiel zum Selbstzweck in den Vordergrund und vernachlässigt dabei oft das Potenzial für zwischenmenschliche Reflexion und Interaktionen. Dark Design-Paaerns wie Loot-Box- Mechanismen und inadäquate oder unvollständige Darstellungen von Identität und Vielfalt oder Zugangsbarrieren können das Spielerlebnis ebenfalls beeinträchtigen. Junge Menschen sind daher zu Expert*innen im Umgang mit diesen Herausforderungen geworden und haben eine einzigartige Perspektive für die gemeinsame Interaktion mit digitalen Medien in ihrem täglichen Leben.

Aus der Praxis wissen wir, dass Lehrkräfte didaktische Szenarien als positiv wahrnehmen, wenn sie sie ohne viel Umbau oder Vorbereitung umsetzen können. Werden bspw. konstruktivistische Lerntheorien zu Grunde gelegt, sollte das Szenario in das Spiel eingebettet ist, die Ko-Konstruktion von Wissen zwischen Lernenden und Lehrenden fördern. Das Szenario muss also Einbringungen beider berücksichtigen und mit dem Spiel in Verbindung bringen. Wir bemühen uns aktiv darum, ein solches Umfeld zu schaffen, indem wir Personen aus dem universitären, öffentlichen Schul- und Industriekontext in interaktiven (Schul-)Workshops und in Veranstaltungen, die Raum für Selbsterfahrungen bieten, zusammenbringen.

Für den interaktiven interdisziplinären Workshop auf der #Youth Media Life2024 schlagen wir eine 90-minütige Session vor, die es den TeilnehmerInnen ermöglicht, das Potenzial von Instruktionsdesign mit Computerspielen zu erleben. Mehr als 50 Spiele aus den Bereichen Informatik, Geschichte und politische Bildung sowie Ästhetik und Sprachen können in Begleitung von uns drei (wir decken die unterschiedlichen Bereiche ab) unter Benutzung von Unterrichtsmaterial auf zwanzig Valve Steam Decks und zwanzig Nintendo Switches ausprobiert werden. Die Konsolen bringen wir mit! Aufgeteilt in drei 30-minütige Slots beginnt der Workshop mit einer kurzen Einführung in Computerspiele als Medium für digital game-based learning, gefolgt von der Bildung von Gruppen und der Auswahl von Spielen. Im zweiten Teil setzen sich die Teilnehmer*innen aktiv anhand bereitgestellten Materials mit dem ausgewählten Spiel auseinander. Das Ziel besteht nicht darin, das Spiel innerhalb des Zeitrahmens abzuschließen, sondern seine Affordanzen und seine Relevanz für den gewählten Kontext zu erkunden. Der letzte Teil ist einer gemeinsamen Diskussion gewidmet, in der die Teilnehmer*innen ihre Lernerfahrungen mit Hilfe der Dokumentation austauschen und die Nützlichkeit bestimmter Spiele für bestimmte Lernkontexte bewerten können.

"New Horizons in Informal Second Language Learning: Insights from European Contexts" (Thematic symposium)

Lisza-Sophie Neumeier, Marlene Schwarz

Contributors: Marlene Schwarz, Lisza-Sophie Neumeier, Katharina Ghamarian, Verena Grau, Marlene Miglbauer, Craig Neville, Merita Hoxha, Ute Smit, Ekaterina Strati, Alexandra Schurz, Pia Sundqvist, Nasrin Ulfat, Henrik Gyllstad, Elke Peters, Ulrikke Rindal, Gustaf B. Skar, Elien Prophète.

Alongside formal language instruction, the digital era has unlocked countless opportunities for informal second language learning experiences (ISLL; Dressman, 2020, p. 1). With a stable internet connection, learners can independently immerse themselves in their target language through various means, such as games, TikTok videos or Netflix shows, during their free time. The introduction of new (online) technologies and media has rapidly expanded the list of innovative language learning possibilities and continues to do so. However, ISLL can also occur in more traditional, non-digital settings, for instance in communicative situations while travelling or by reading books in English. Researchers in the field of second language acquisition have recognized and explored this phenomenon (e.g., Sundqvist, 2009; Sockett, 2014; Dressman & Sadler, 2020) since the early 2000s, leading to the emergence of a new research area.

Considering the global influence of Anglo-American media in recent decades and the widespread use of English as a lingua franca, both online and offline (e.g., Bosso, forthcoming), most researchers have primarily concentrated on the informal learning of English, which is then most often referred to as Extramural English (EE; Sundqvist, 2009), although other terms solely focusing on digital environments, such as online informal learning of English (OILE; Sockett, 2014), or informal digital learning of English (IDLE; Lee & Dressman, 2018), have also been used.

In this panel, the emerging, multi-faceted research field of informal second language learning of English will be introduced to a wider interdisciplinary audience. By means of eleven studies, different age groups in educational, professional and recreational contexts are presented and compared.

Bosso, R. (forthcoming). Developing intercultural communication strategies through Facebook: A longitudinal investigation of VELF exchanges. In S. Reichl & U. Smit (Eds.), #YouthMediaLife & Friends: Interdisciplinary research into young people’s mediatised lifeworlds. Vienna University Press.
Dressman, M. (2020). Introduction. In M. Dressman & R. Sadler (Eds.), The handbook of informal language learning (pp. 1–12). Wiley-Blackwell.
Dressman, M., & Sadler, R. (Eds.). (2020). The handbook of informal language learning.
Sockett, G. (2014). The online informal learning of English. Palgrave Macmillian.
Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders’ oral proficiency and vocabulary (Karlstad University Studies, 2009:55) [Doctoral dissertation, Karlstad University]. DiVA. https://www.diva- portal.org/smash/get/diva2:275141/FULLTEXT03.pdf

1st session

  • Talk 1: Setting the scene: A systematic review of Informal Second Language Learning as an emerging research field (2000 to 2020) - Marlene Schwarz
    The emerging research field of Informal Second Language Learning (ISLL) has grown substantially over the past two decades (Dressman & Sadler, 2020). This introductory talk presents a systematic review (e.g., Petticrew & Roberts, 2006) carried out by an international group of European researchers. 218 sources published between 2000 and 2020 were analysed with regard to aims, terminology, theoretical framework, setting, research design and findings in relation to L2 development. The systematic review thus provides an overview of what has been accomplished over the last 20 years, while also acknowledging issues in relation to terminological confusion and methodological variation. As such, it can point towards fruitful directions for future research.

    Dressman, M., & Sadler, R. (Eds.). (2020). The handbook of informal language learning. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2006). Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. Blackwell.
  • Talk 2: Exploring Second Language Engagement and Enjoyment: The Influence of English on the Lives of Young Adults in Austria - Lisza-Sophie Neumeier
    Affective factors have largely been neglected in ISLL research (Arndt, 2023). Therefore, the present project addresses the relationship between ISLL and Foreign Language Enjoyment, a positive emotion experienced by L2 speakers when a satisfactory interplay between challenge and ability is met while engaging in L2 use (Botes et al., 2022; Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2016).
    Drawing upon prior research (e.g., Schwarz, 2020; Ghamarian-Krenn, 2023; Resnik & Dewaele, 2020), the current study explored ISLL and FLE behaviors of 653 young adults in Austria between 18 and 35 years. The findings show that compared to working young adults, tertiary students and young adults who are both studying and working scored significantly higher on the ISLL scale. Additionally, members of Gen-Z had significantly higher FLE than millennials. Furthermore, ISLL predicted FLE.

    Arndt, H. L. (2023). Construction and validation of a questionnaire to study engagement in informal second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263122000572
    Botes, E., Dewaele, J.-M., & Greiff, S. (2022). Taking stock: A meta-analysis of the effects of foreign language enjoyment. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12(2), 205–232. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.2.3
    Dewaele, J.-M., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2016). Foreign Language Enjoyment and Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety: The right and left feet of the language learner. In P. D. MacIntyre, T. Gregersen, & S. Mercer (Eds.), Positive Psychology in SLA (pp. 215–236). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783095360-010
    Ghamarian-Krenn, K. (2023). Extramural English and academic verb knowledge: A longitudinal study of Viennese students majoring in English [PhD Thesis]. University of Vienna.
    Resnik, P., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2020). Trait emotional intelligence, positive and negative emotions in first and foreign language classes: A mixed-methods approach. System, 94, 102324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102324
    Schwarz, M. (2020). Beyond the walls: A mixed methods study of teenagers’ extramural English practices and their vocabulary knowledge [PhD Thesis]. University of Vienna
  • Talk 3: Extramural English and academic vocabulary depth: A longitudinal study with Viennese English major students - Katharina Ghamarian
    Building on past research (e.g., Lee, 2019; Lee & Dressman, 2018; Lee & Sylvén, 2021; Sundqvist & Sylvén, 2014; Warnby, 2022), which has already highlighted the importance of Extramural English (EE) for general vocabulary size, this study is aiming to expand on these findings by focusing on the investigation of participants’ knowledge of academic vocabulary.
    By investigating the EE practices and vocabulary depth knowledge of 147 undergraduate students majoring in English for a whole academic year this study fills several research gaps, such as providing first longitudinal results on EE behaviour and its influence on academic verb knowledge over time. Moreover, by using a self-developed test battery for academic verbs this study focuses on the influence of EE on vocabulary depth in comparison to prior studies focusing mostly on vocabulary size (e.g., Binder et al., 2007; Duff & Brydon, 2020; Li & Wang, 2014).

    Binder, K. S.; Gilbert Cote, N.; Lee, C.; Bessette, E.; Vu, H.. (2017). Beyond breadth: The contributions of vocabulary depth to reading comprehension among skilled readers. Journal of Research in Reading, 40(3), 333-343.
    Duff, D., & Brydon, M. (2020). Estimates of individual differences in vocabulary size in English: How many words are needed to ‘close the vocabulary gap’. Journal of Research in Reading, 43(4), 454-481.
    Lee, J. S. (2019). Informal digital learning of English and second language vocabulary outcomes: Can quantity conquer quality?. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(2), 767–778.
    Lee, J. S., & Dressman, M. (2018). When IDLE hands make an English workshop: Informal digital learning of English and language proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 52(2), 435–445.
    Lee J. S., & Sylvén L. K. (2021). The role of informal digital learning of English in Korean and Swedish EFL learners’ communication behaviour. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52, 1279-1296.
    Sundqvist, P., & Sylvén, L. K. (2014). Language-related computer use: Focus on young L2 English learners in Sweden. ReCALL, 26(1), 3–20.
    Warnby, M. (2022). Receptive academic vocabulary knowledge and extramural English involvement: is there a correlation? International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 173(1), 120-152.
  • Talk 4: Informal second language learning and EMEMUS: Bachelor students’ reasons for and experiences on an Austrian English-medium program - Verena Grau
    While research into English-medium education in multilingual university settings (EMEMUS, Dafouz & Smit 2020) as well as informal (second) language learning (Dressman & Sadler 2020) has been growing rapidly over the past decades, few studies so far have explored the influence of students’ use of English outside the classroom in EMEMUS settings (but see Avello et al. 2019). This study takes a narrative inquiry approach (Barkhuizen et al. 2014) to shed light on three focal students’ study trajectories, more specifically their motivations and experiences in the context of their three- year English-medium business bachelor program. The narratives show that the students’ use of English outside the classroom has an important impact on their study trajectories. Furthermore, they highlight complex hybrid cases (Dressman & Sadler 2020, p. 4) of formal and informal language learning in EME settings that call for further investigation.

    Avello, M.; Camacho-Miñano, M.; Urquia-Grande, E.; del Campo, C. (2019). “Do you use English in your daily life?”: Undergraduate students’ perceptions of their extramural use of English. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 30(1), 77-94.
    Dafouz, E., & Smit, U. (2020). ROAD-MAPPING English medium education in the internationalised university. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Dressman, M., & Sadler, R. (Eds.). (2020). The handbook of informal language learning. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Barkhuizen, G., Benson, P., & Chik, A. (2014). Narrative Inquiry in Language Teaching and Learning Research. Routledge.

2nd session

  • Talk 5: Extramural English and techno-linguistic biographies of pre-service teachers as drivers for revisiting teaching English and digital competencies at university level - Marlene Miglbauer
    The ubiquitous use of digital devices, communication apps and AI as well as the increased exposure to extramural English calls for revisiting teaching English language skills and digital literacies in tertiary English language teaching (Miglbauer, 2017). Drawing on techno-linguistic biographies (Lee, 2014) with pre-service teachers studying to become secondary school teachers of various subjects, this paper uses quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the students’ use of and exposure to technology and extramural English; the results of which will be the basis of an updated version of the framework of teaching English language skills and digital literacies at university level.

    Lee, C. (2014). Language choice and self-presentation in social media: the case of university students in Hong Kong. In P. Seargeant & C. Tagg. (Eds), The language of social media, Palgrave Macmillan, 91-111.
    Miglbauer, M. (2017). Students’ Extramural English as a resource for fostering language skills and digital competencies in tertiary language education. [Unpublished MA thesis]. University for Continuing Education Krems/Donau.
  • Talk 6: Out-of-school digital practices for disciplinary literacies in CLIL: Opportunities and challenges of conducting a European-wide qualitative teacher survey through COST Actions. - Craig Neville & Merita Hoxha
    Research approaches within the field of Applied Linguistics (AL) have undergone several identity crises since the mid-1990s, particularly around diversifying research methods (Lazaraton, 2005). In recent years, quantitative research is gaining traction as a viable method of AL research. One of the deliverables of the CLILNetLE COST Action mobility project is to investigate the digital practices of 10–18-year-old learners across Europe in the area of disciplinary literacies. This presentation will detail our own research-informed, pragmatic approach to quantitative research within the diverse context of COST Actions, detailing our approach from the initial conceptualisation of our research questions to the design and validation of our teacher survey to finally its piloting in Albania. Issues concerning ethical implications of such large-scale quantitative research with minors as well as FAIR Data principles will also be addressed with a view to demonstrating how this more unconventional approach to large-scale quantitative research can be professionally rewarding but also valuable when in pursuit of new knowledge.

    Lazaraton, A. (2005). Quantitative research methods. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 209-224). Routledge

  • Talk 7: Extramural digital practices and their relevance for disciplinary literacies in CLIL: Piloting a European student survey - Ute Smit, Ekaterina Strati, Katharina Ghamarian
    Building on the rich research literature on informal second language learning (ISLL), this presentation takes a novel approach to the learning potential of digital practices young people engage in in their spare time. Rather than foreign language learning on its own, it is concerned with content-and-language-integrated learning (CLIL), or more precisely developing disciplinary literacies in CLIL contexts. Benefiting from the wide network of the COST Action CLILNetLE, the survey introduced here will collect data from 10-18 year old students across Europe, offering insights into current digital practices across countries and educational systems. With the pilot administered in Albania where CLIL education comes in various target languages, this initial data set foreshadows the full linguistic scope of the main study, allowing us to compare digital practices in English with those in other foreign languages, such as Italian. Besides providing valuable feedback on the questionnaire itself, findings of the pilot will thus offer insights into the linguistic preferences Europeans display for digital practices, and the impact this might have on informal literacy development across target languages.
  • Talk 8: Bringing learners’ extramural English into the classroom: Activities suggested by teachers from four countries - Alexandra Schurz & Pia Sundqvist
    Although learners’ use of extramural (out-of-class) English (EE) is currently rising across the globe, few studies have examined ways in which English Language Teaching (ELT) can positively interact with such informal learning. In the present study, secondary school teachers of English in Austria, France, Finland, and Sweden (N = 534) were asked to illustrate an activity that they would do with students extensively engaging in EE; 239 teachers responded. Results show interesting cross- country differences. The proportion of teachers illustrating an activity linking EE and ELT was highest in the Swedish and lowest in the French sample. Additionally, while Austrian and French teachers mainly proposed activities based on authentic material, northern teachers more frequently suggested activities geared towards the development of language areas less commonly practiced in EE. Such compensatory activities might become increasingly important also in countries where extensive EE use is a newer phenomenon.

    Schurz, A., & Sundqvist, P. (2022). Connecting extramural English with ELT: Teacher reports from Austria, Finland, France and Sweden. Applied Linguistics, 43(5), 934-957. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amac013

3rd session

  • Talk 9: Escapism and Extramural English: The Psychology behind English Language Acquisition - Nasrin Ulfat
    This presentation discusses seven 10th-grade students in Norway (aged 15) and their extramural English gaming and/or reading habits (Sundqvist, 2009) and escapism practices. Escapism refers to the practice of escaping reality and everyday troubles through, e.g., gaming and/or reading (Longeway, 1990), which are known to be salient EE inputs, thus suggesting a connection between escapist gaming/reading and English proficiency (Heilman, 1975; Hussain et al., 2021; Hannibal Jensen, 2017). The aim of this study is to better understand what escapism entails for each participant. Purposive sampling was employed to find “escapers” among a large group of gamers and readers. The data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and analyzed qualitatively.

    Hannibal Jensen, S. (2017). Gaming as an English language learning resource among young children in Denmark. CALICO Journal, 34(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.29519
    Heilman, R. B. (1975). Escape and escapism varieties of literary experience. The Sewanee Review, 83(3), 439-458. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27542986
    Hussain, U., Jabarkhail, S., Cunningham, G. B., & Madsen, J. A. (2021). The dual nature of escapism in video gaming: A meta-analytic approach. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 3, 100081. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100081
    Longeway, J.L. (1990). The rationality of escapism and self-deception. Behavior and Philosophy, 18(2), 1-20. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27759220
    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders’ oral proficiency and vocabulary (Karlstad University Studies, 2009:55) [Doctoral dissertation, Karlstad University]. DiVA. https://www.diva- portal.org/smash/get/diva2:275141/FULLTEXT03.pdf
  • Talk 10: First-graders know L2 English vocabulary – viewing, gaming, YouTube - Pia Sundqvist, Henrik Gyllstad, Elke Peters, Ulrikke Rindal, Gustaf B. Skar & Nasrin Ulfat
    This presentation uncovers the relation between very young second/foreign language learners’ English vocabulary knowledge and extramural English (EE, Sundqvist, 2009). Research has shown that music, gaming, and TV are important EE sources (Puimège & Peters, 2019) and indicated gender-related differences for EE and vocabulary (Hannibal Jensen, 2017). Data were collected from 60 1st-graders (aged 5–6) in Norway: learner and parental questionnaires, and a shortened (k=31) Picture Vocabulary Size Test (Anthony & Nation, 2017). Results-wise, participants knew on average 12.32 words (SD=5.13). Gamers scored higher than non-gamers; no gender-related EE or vocabulary differences were found. The presentation ends with a glimpse of SYLT-VOC, a test for young learners.

    Anthony, L., & Nation, I. S. P. (2017). Picture Vocabulary Size Test (Version 1.2.0) [Computer software and measurement instrument]. Waseda University. http://www.laurenceanthony.net/software/pvst
    Hannibal Jensen, S. (2017). Gaming as an English language learning resource among young children in Denmark. CALICO Journal, 34(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.29519
    Puimège, E., & Peters, E. (2019). Learners' English vocabulary knowledge prior to formal instruction: The role of learner-related and word-related factors. Language Learning, 69(4), 943–977. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12364
    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders’ oral proficiency and vocabulary (Karlstad University Studies, 2009:55) [Doctoral dissertation, Karlstad University]. DiVA. https://www.diva- portal.org/smash/get/diva2:275141/FULLTEXT03.pdf
  • Talk 11: Comparing quantitative instruments for mapping extramural English: Young learners’ exposure, writing skills and grammaticality judgements - Elke Peters, Elien Prophète & Pia Sundqvist
    In previous work on informal second language learning, several methods have been adopted to measure extramural English (EE; Sundqvist, 2009), including questionnaires (e.g., Puimège & Peters, 2019), language diaries (e.g., Hannibal Jensen, 2017), interviews (e.g., Sylvén, 2022), and focus groups (De Wilde & Eyckmans, 2022). Despite the methodological challenges that come with mapping exposure, to our knowledge, no previous study has compared different EE instruments. In this presentation, we share our experiences of gauging young Flemish participants’ (age 11–12) EE using two quantitative instruments (i.e., a questionnaire and a language diary), while investigating the link between exposure, writing skills and grammaticality judgement.

    De Wilde, V. & Eyckmans, J. (2022). ‘In love with English’: A mixed-methods investigation of Flemish children’s spontaneous engagement with out-of-school exposure. In V. De Wilde & C. Goriot (Eds.), Second language learning before adulthood: Individual differences in children and adolescents (pp. 87–108). De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110743043-005
    Hannibal Jensen, S. (2017). Gaming as an English language learning resource among young children in Denmark. CALICO Journal, 34(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1558/cj.29519
    Puimège, E., & Peters, E. (2019). Learners’ English vocabulary knowledge prior to formal instruction: The role of learner-related and word-related variables. Language Learning, 69(4), 943–977. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12364
    Sundqvist, P. (2009). Extramural English matters: Out-of-school English and its impact on Swedish ninth graders’ oral proficiency and vocabulary. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation.] Karlstad University.
    Sylvén, L. K. (2022). Very young Swedish children’s exposure to English outside of school. In C. Bardel, C. Hedman, K. Rejman, & E. Zetterholm (Eds.), Exploring language education: Global and local perspectives (pp. 121–155). Stockholm University Press. https://doi.org/10.16993/bbz.e

Joint discussion & conclusion (~20 min)

"Performative, Transmedial, (Post-)Digital: Contemporary Poetry Off the Page by and for Young People" (Thematic symposium)

Claudia Sackl

Contributors: Shefali Banerji, Magdalena Korecka, Julia Lückl, Claudia Sackl

General Abstract:
Instapoetry, poetry slams, online open mics, poetry clips and films … Contemporary forms of poetry off the page produced by and for young people are multimodal and transmedial, frequently performative and always malleable – moving between paper and screen, liveness and recording, between the scriptural, the oral and the corporeal, between the printed, the digital and the performative.

This thematic symposium not only examines the forms, modalities and medialities of contemporary (post-)digital poetry practices by and for young people, but also further develops theoretical considerations within the study of spoken word and digital poetry. While the first two papers explore how performance and scriptural poetry go and have gone digital – both in the context of post-digital publishing structures and the pandemic –, the following talks investigate the transmedia movements and transcriptive relations in contemporary spoken word texts. Thus, the panel aims to contribute to a nuanced understanding of the organisational and operational structures of contemporary poetry off the page as well as related constructions of youth and socio-political engagement.

Individual Papers:

  • Paper 1: Of Safe Spaces and Moments of Solidarity. Digital Poetry Performance in the Times of Pandemic - Shefali Banerji
    In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, poetry performance across the world, having always been flexible regarding the spaces it inhabits, quickly opened its virtual/digital doors to forge transnational and transcultural connections in form of online open mics, reading groups, hashtag campaigns, etc. Additionally, popular performance poets like George the Poet in the UK and Amanda Gorman in the US produced poetry films to offer hope in times of crisis.
    Both of their poems, “Coronavirus: The Power of Collaboration” and “The Miracle of Morning”, resonated with the masses and went ‘viral’. Similarly, Jasmine Gardosi ‘trended’ transnationally in the UK and the US for their poem “Rollercoaster”, which was performed on a rollercoaster to epitomise the highs and lows of the pandemic. In India, popular spoken word platform Kommune engaged people from the comfort of their homes with the launch of the campaign #HomeIsWhereTheArtIs, which saw enormous participation across the country. In my paper, I analyse how Anglophone poetry performance across continents, specifically in the UK, the US and India, responded to the pandemic by adapting itself to the platform of a digital screen, and what digital poetry performance entails in terms of accessibility and a shift in online spaces, using critical frameworks from spoken word, digital theatre and performance studies.
  • Paper 2: Poetry on Social Media & Its Multimodal Paratextualities - Magdalena Korecka
    Yrsa Daley-Ward, Anna Ciarkowska and Wopana Mudimu are some of the many poets that come to mind when thinking about poetry on Instagram, TikTok and various other social media platforms. Their writing does not only involve the often-discussed authorial persona (‘platform labor’ and ‘branding’, cf. Pâquet 2019) in a media ecological environment that lives off algorithmic curation and/or concealed big data (‘datafication’, cf. Poell/Nieborg/ Duffy 2022), but the specific multimodality of the poems is also a tool for/with socially engaged poems on social media – a specific strand of this socially engaged platformised poetry is located in the context of feminism(s) with specific renderings of Black feminist thought (Boqo 2023) or movements as the Polish “Strajk kobiet” (Korecka 2023). Paratextual (Genette 1989; Korecka/Wehmeier 2023/upcoming) elements are at the core of the afforded and constrained multimodality in international instapoetry, twitterature etc. Commentary sections, (location) tags, and captions also meaningfully contribute to each poem and are thus considered as essential components, not merely peripheral ‘additions’. The paper will therefore specifically address the meanings that can be ascribed to multimodal paratextualities in the realm of social media poetry and its user reception as a result of a multimodal media ethnographic study (dissertation).
  • Paper 3: Moving Memory across Media. Digital Paratexts, Hashtags and the Archive in Precious Nnebedum’s Transmedia Movement “i had other plans for 2020” - Julia Lückl
    Experiences of powerlessness, experiences of resistance. In the performances of spoken word artist Precious Nnebedum, memories of individual and collective experiences of racism come together and are – literally – moved: from Instagram to live poetry slams and YouTube, from Facebook to podcast formats and finally to the classic publication medium of the printed book. These border crossings of narrated and performed experiences will be at the centre of my talk, which is dedicated to the transmedia movement of Nnebedum’s “i had other plans for 2020”. In this transmedial performance, two (seemingly contrary) figures of memory and networking converge and constitute a new form of memory space or, more precisely, of memory movement: the archive (an established metaphor of collective memory, cf. Assmann 1988) and the hashtag (an actor of digital memory, cf. Bernard 2019). Nnebedum’s performance movements can be localised in the (precarious) interstice between storage and fleetingness, between stability and movement, between orality, scripturality and corporeality. As I will show in my talk, the subversive, memory-political potential of her performances lies precisely in this in-between space. Additionally, challenging the traditional concept of the poetic ‘work’, my paper will propose the concept of ‘movement’ as a term that describes transmedial performance phenomena like those created by Precious Nnebedum more accurately.
  • Paper 4: Transcriptive (Net)Works. Exploring the Intra- and Intertextual Significance of Transcriptivity in Spoken Word - Claudia Sackl
    As a multimodal, performative art form, spoken word exhibits a complex relationship to scripturality. While live poetry usually does not make available any scriptural poetic work, poetry clips frequently include written words into their audio-visual material. Additionally, many poet-performers also publish their spoken word texts in printed volumes. Recent scholarship on spoken word (Benthien/Prange 2020; Vorrath 2020) has employed Ludwig Jäger’s theory of transcriptivity (2010a; 2010b; 2014) in order to conceptualise some of these relationalities. In my paper, I will explore the multi-layered processes of transcription and relations of transcriptivity – between the scriptural and the oral, the printed and the digital, the performative and the recorded, etc. – that come into effect within and among spoken word texts in greater detail. Analysing selected works by Precious Nnebedum, Jason Reynolds and Dean Ruddock, I will tease out different examples of intra- and intertextual transcriptivity within spoken word texts created by and/or for young people. What is more, building on paper no. 3, I will illustrate how the dynamic and rhizomatic structures of what I conceptualise as spoken word ‘(net)works’ are determined by interdependent and recursive relations of transcriptivity that continuously open up new possible connections and branches of transcription embedded in an open-ended process of meaning-making, resignification and ‘remediation’ (Bolter/Grusin 2001). In doing so, I will propose to conceive of transcriptivity as both an organisational and operational logic within spoken word (net)works.

Selected Bibliography:
Assmann, Jan. "Kollektives Gedächtnis und kulturelle Identität." Kultur und Gedächtnis. Eds. Jan Assmann and Tonio Hölscher. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1988. 9-19.
Benthien, Claudia. "Performed Poetry. Situationale Rahmungen und mediale 'Über- Setzungen' zeitgenössischer Lyrik." Rahmenbrüche, Rahmenwechsel. Eds. Uwe Wirth and Veronika Sellier. Berlin: Kadmos, 2013. 287-312.
---. Poesie im digitalen Zeitalter. Interdisziplinäre Zugänge im medialen Spannungsfeld von Performance, Musik und Visueller Kultur. Talk at the University of Vienna, 3 May 2023.
--- and Catrin Prange. "Spoken-Word-Literatur und Poetry Slam." Handbuch Literatur & Audiokultur. Eds. Natalie Binczek and Uwe Wirth. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2020. 517-533.
Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin. Remediation; Understanding New Media. Cambridge/London: MIT Press, 2000.
Borggreen, Gunhild and Rune Gade (eds.). Performing Archives / Archives of Performance. Kopenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, 2013.
Bernard, Andreas. Theory of the Hashtag. Newark: Polity Press, 2019.
Genette, Gérard: Paratexte. Das Buch vom Beiwerk des Buches [frz. 1987]. Frankfurt a. M./New York: Campus, 1989.
Fielitz, Maik and Daniel Staemmler. "Hashtags, Tweets, Protest? Varianten des digitalen Aktivismus." Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen 33.2 (2020): 422-441.
Jäger, Ludwig. "Intermedialität – Intramedialität – Transkriptivität. Überlegungen zu einigen Prinzipien der kulturellen Semiosis." Sprache intermedial: Stimme und Schrift – Bild und Ton. Eds. Arnulf Deppermann and Angelika Linke. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, 2010a. 301-324.
---. "Transcriptivity Matters: On the Logic of Intra- and Intermedial References in Aesthetic Discourse." Media, Culture, and Mediality: New Insights into the Current State of Research. Eds. Ludwig Jäger, Erika Linz and Irmela Schneider. Bielefeld: transcript, 2010b. 49-75.
---. "Audioliteratlität. Eine Skizze zur Transkriptivität des Hörbuchs." Das Hörbuch: Praktiken audioliteralen Schreibens und Verstehens. Eds. Natalie Binczek and Cornelia Epping-Jäger. München: Brill, 2014. 231-253.
"Platformized Visual Intimacies: Visibility in Feminist Instapoetry." Poetry and Contemporary Visual Culture / Lyrik and zeitgenössische Visuelle Kultur. Berlin/Boston: DeGruyter, 2023 [upcoming].
Korecka, Magdalena Elisabeth and Henrik Wehmeier. "Die inszenierte Erfüllung des lyrischen Ich(s)? Epitexte der Instapoetry als Schwelle zwischen lyrischem Text, auktorialer Selbstinszenierung, Plattforminterface und Rezipierenden." "Irgendwo außerhalb des Buches"? – Über Formen und Funktionen auktorialer Epitexte im literarischen Feld der Gegenwart [upcoming, 2023/2024].
Novak, Julia. Live Poetry: An Integrated Approach to Poetry in Performance. Amsterdam: Brill, 2011.
Pâquet, Lili. "Selfie-Help: The Multimodal Appeal of Instagram Poetry." The Journal of Popular Culture 52.2 (2019): 296-314.
Poell, Thomas, David Nieborg und Brooke Erin Duffy. Platforms and Cultural Production. Cambridge/Medford: Polity, 2022.
Rambukkana, Nathan. "Hashtags as Technosocial Events." Hashtag Publics: The Power and Politics of Discursive Networks. Ed. Nathan Rambukkana. New York: Peter Lang, 2015. 1-10.
Sharpe, Christina. In the Wake: On Blackness and Being. North Carolina: Duke UP, 2016.
Vorrath, Wiebke. Hörlyrik der Gegenwart: Auditive Poesie in digitalen Medien. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2020.

"Folk culture in the digital age: Fairy tales and computer games"

Rosy-Triantafyllia Angelaki

Fairy tales are timeless stories that introduce people to the literary, social and cultural heritage of diverse cultures and evolve to reflect contemporary social culture. Today, as the field of Folklore Studies expands and recognizes the contribution of the internet and virtual reality to the preservation, dissemination and creation of forms of folk culture, indigenous traditional stories and fairy tales are adapted for mainstream media platforms and enter into a complex media space in order to stimulate children's cultural literacy. The fairy tales, therefore, are not a simplified representation of reality, but an engaging metaphorical convergence of symbols, diversity, social expectations, transformed into computer games. In this context, this presentation focuses on contemporary transformations of the Grimm brothers' folk tales, such as Hansel and Gretel, Cinderella, Rapunzel, Red riding hood, Godfather death etc., which are particularly popular and beloved by children and adults, into electronic role-playing, adventure, and action games. Drawing on Children's Literature, Folklore, Game Design and Serious Games’ theories, as well as the recent scholarly work according to which folk narratives create new collectivities that chart a new course for the evolution of the folk tradition, I examine the relationship between literature, folk narrative and technology; to what extent is Propp's morphology of the folk tales (1928) and Olrik's epic laws of folk narratives (1909) applicable to digital forms of the aforementioned Grimm’s fairy tales; and why video games that are extensions of popular Grimm brothers' fairy tales are thriving in a frontier that provides an important new space to engage and play.

Keywords: Children’ Literature, computer games,  fairy tales , folk narrative

"Belonging and social mobility among young online content producers from low- income families in Brazil"

Carla Barros

Töhe article aims to understand experiences of digital inclusion among groups of young online content producers from low-income families in Brazil, one of the countries with the highest social inequality in the world. It is about analyzing how these subjects build their life trajectories from the visibility achieved in online social media, investigating how they carry out their identity constructions and thematize their class place in a scenario of social mobility. The study adopts an ethnographic perspective (Pink et al, 2016) to analyze their actions as content producers in the digital environment and their interactions with audiences. Despite a scenario of slow social rise in Brazil, there has been a relative increase in schooling of young people of low-income groups in the last decade, with the emergence of the first generation of family members with access to the University. Consequently, it becomes possible for these young people to obtain jobs with higher professional qualifications when compared to their parents, in addition to developing greater skills and resources to express themselves in the digital context. The research specifically analyzes a group of online content producers - "digital influencers" in the native category - that from new forms of online action expand their social and economic capitals (Bourdieu, 1986) in a scenario of deeper social change. The research results lead to the conclusion that "social mobilities" can be multiple and complex, surpassing the aspect of income increase of a particular social group. There are symbolic boundaries, ways of feeling, perception of potentialities and agencies, expansion of social capital, adherence to new habitus, among other aspects to be considered in the trajectories of low-income youth observed from their insertion in the digital context.
Abstract References

Bourdieu, P. (1986) "The forms of capital". Pp. 241-258 in J.G. Richardson (ed.). Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. New York: Greenwood Press.
Pink, S. et al. (2016) Digital ethnography: Principles and practice. London: Sage Publications.

"Zwischen Regression und Entwicklung: Essstörungen und #Recovery auf TikTok"

Susanne Benzel, Jacob Johanssen

In diesem Vortrag werden Ergebnisse einer explorativen Studie vorgestellt, in der Selbstpräsentationen auf TikTok im Zusammenhang mit Inhalten zu Essstörungen untersucht wurden. Einbezogen wurden auch Darstellungen, in denen die Genesung von Essstörungen thematisiert und dokumentiert werden. Bekannt sind letztere auch unter dem #Recovery.
Während international bereits Befunde vorliegen zu Thematisierungen von Essstörungen auf Social-Media-Plattformen, wie etwa Instagram, besteht weiterhin Forschungsbedarf zu Darstellungen auf der vergleichsweisen jungen Plattform TikTok. Die veränderten und damit neuen Formate auf TikTok– v.a. Kurz-Videos, führen wiederum zu veränderten Ästhetisierungsformen von Selbst- und Körper-Präsentationen verbunden mit Essstörungen. In Kombination aus medientheoretischer und psychoanalytisch sozialpsychologischer Perspektive werden ausgewählte qualitative Form- und Inhaltsanalysen von Videos präsentiert und anhand leitender Fragestellungen diskutiert: Welche Bedeutungsinhalte zu Essstörungen werden von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen über Videos intendiert vermittelt? Wie stehen die manifesten Motive beispielsweise „to show what eating disorders are really like“ im Verhältnis zu den Ästhetisierungen der Selbstpräsentationen und damit auch zu implizit vermittelten Bedeutungen? In welcher Weise werden die Darstellungen von Inhalten zu Essstörungen durch die Strukturen der Plattform TikTok bedingt, befördert und reguliert?

Die Videoanalysen zeigen erstens oftmals ein oszillieren der adoleszenten
Selbstdarstellungen zwischen einem regressiven Zustand, der oft eine Rückkehr zur Kindheit und einem ‚unschuldigen‘ Körper in der Kindheit zeigt, und einer Entwicklung hin zu einem adoleszenten Selbst- und Körperverständnis. Zugleich wird ein Festhalten an strengen symptombasierten Identitäten deutlich, aber auch eine Öffnung gegenüber unbekannten Nutzer:innen auf TikTok. Dieser Akt wird häufig durch die Verwendung des Hashtags #ForYou unterstrichen. Zweitens zeigen viele Videos auch eine kreative und komplexe Verhandlung von (auch adoleszenztypischen) Fragen der Sexualität und Körperdarstellungen, anstatt sich davon abzuwenden, indem sie bestehende ästhetische Regime auf der Plattform anzapfen.

"Erzwungene Follower. Über die Taktiken von Kinder- und Jugendzeitschriften zwischen 1933 und 1945"

Susanne Blumesberger

Der jungen Generation wurde die Verantwortung für das zukünftige "Deutsche Reich" übertragen, dazu mussten sie jedoch Führungsqualitäten entwickeln und sich je nach Geschlecht zu Soldaten oder zu opferbereiten Müttern entwickeln. Sämtliche verfügbare Medien wurden eingesetzt um Jugendliche entsprechend zu beeinflussen. Jugendzeitschriften spielten dabei eine große Rolle, sie berichteten über die Hitlerjugend und verbreiteten nationalsozialistisches Gedankengut. Es ist davon auszugehen, dass zahlreiche Menschen damit erreicht werden konnten, da auch Erwachsene mitlasen. Um die Leser*innenbindung zu stärken, wurden Kinder und Jugendliche aktiv in die jeweiligen Zeitschriften eingebunden.
"Federwettstreite" dienten zur Erkennung journalistischer Talente. Die ausgewählten Arbeiten wurden veröffentlicht, die Namen für den Pressenachwuchs festgehalten. Leser*innenbriefe und eigene Beiträge wurden angeregt. Im Presse- und Propagandaamt der Reichsjugendführung, die auch für die Herausgabe einiger Zeitschriften verantwortlich war, wurde die Jugendpressearbeit zentral gelenkt. Pressestellen sorgten für den Absatz der Jugendzeitschriften, die Jugend wurde aufgefordert, intensiv für ihre Zeitschriften zu werben.

Es existierten darüber hinaus Zeitschriften für die im Ausland lebende "reichsdeutsche Jugend", um sie nationalsozialistisch zu erziehen. Auch Kinder, die in "Kinderlandverschickungslager" untergebracht waren, wurden mit Zeitschriften versorgt. Bedeutsam war vor allem die auflagenstarke, vom Nationalsozialistischen Lehrerbund 1933 bis 1944 monatlich herausgegebene Zeitschrift Hilf Mit! Illustrierte deutsche Schülerzeitung für ältere Schüler. Sie war Unterrichtsmaterial, Privatlektüre der Schüler, der Geschwister und der Eltern, Themen waren Kampf, Krieg und Antisemitismus. 1935 kam die Deutsche Jugendburg für jüngere hinzu, die Rätsel, Märchen, Sagen, Bildergeschichten, Briefe und Texte von nationalsozialistischen Autoren, wie etwa Karl Springenschmid, sowie von jungen Leser*innen enthielt.

Als Gegenbeispiel soll die 1942 in New York gegründete "Austro-American Tribune" der "Assembly for a democratic Action", die gegen Hitler kämpfte, genannt werden. Sie enthielt Berichte österreichischer Widerstandskämpfer*innen, Diskussionen über aktuelle Probleme und Nachrufe auf verstorbene Flüchtlinge. Aus der Rubrik "Hier spricht die Jugend" entstand eine eigene Beilage, die bis Mitte 1943 "Jugend im Kampf" und anschließend "The Young Austro American" hieß.

Der Vortrag soll anhand ausgewählter Beispiele zwischen 1933 und 1945 den Versuch junge Leser*innen mittels Fortsetzungsgeschichten, Rätsel, Leser*innenbriefe, eigener Beiträge an Zeitschriften zu binden und zu beeinflussen, zeigen.

Pfanner, Helmut F.: "Austro-American Tribune": Die Stimme eines freien demokratischen Österreich im Exil. In: Holzner, Johann; Sigurd Paul Scheichl, Wolfgang Wiesmüller (Hg.): Eine schwierige Heimkehr. Österreichische Literatur im Exil 1938-1945. Innsbruck: Institut für Germanistik 1991, S. 205-217.
Josting, Petra: Der "Jugendschrifttums-Kampf" des Nationalsozialistischen Lehrerbundes. Hildesheim, Zürich: Olms-Weidmann 1995.
Mikota, Jana: "Sst, sst… was ist los in Spanien?". Kinderbeilagen in Zeitschriften des Exils. In: Informationen. Studienkreis: Deutscher Widerstand (2003). Nr. 57. S. 24-27.
Schruttke, Tatjana: Die Jugendpresse des Nationalsozialismus. Köln, Weimar, Wien: Böhlau 1997.

"Digital Geographies of Mundane Violence in Young People’s Lives"

Belinda Mahlknecht, Tabea Bork-Hüffer, Andrea Markl

Digital technologies, through their subtle inscription in bodies, perceptions, practices, materialities, and related spatialisations, are an intrinsic and entangled part of social, cultural, and political negotiations, discourses, and processes, contributing significantly to the normalisation and everyday (re-)production of diverse forms of violence in entangled online and offline spaces. The objective of this article is to outline the emerging field of engagement with the spatialites produced by mediated violence that we denote as the digital geographies of mundane violence. Based on Leszczynski (2015: 729), we understand spatiality as the "nexus of material socio-spatio-technical relations" that are "always-already mediated – i.e. as the ontogenetic effects of the contingent, necessarily incomplete comings-together of technical presences, persons, and space/place". Going beyond a review and discussion of existing literature, we apply Barad’s (2007: 25) "diffractive methodology" to read through findings by studies on violence with non-essentialist concepts of entangled online and offline space and spatialities. Given the variety of technologies, forms of violence, and spaces in which violence unfolds, we develop our argument by focusing on a specific type of gender-based violence: (cyber-)bullying of young people whose identities are not conforming to hegemonic heterosexuality and binary gender categories, but who identify with any other "abundant identity" (Persson et al. 2020, 54). We also include an example of a methodology and research design that unites retrospective insights into biographies of childhood, familial and social relations and media use with a mobile, partly in-situ analysis of the everyday entangled mediated experiences, practices and negotiations in order to unpack the situatedness, the dynamics, fluidities, non-linearities and variegated historicities behind mediated violence in entangled spaces.

References cited in the abstract
BARAD, K. (2007): Meeting the universe halfway. Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning, Durham, Duke University Press.
LESZCZYNSKI, A. (2015): Spatial media/tion. Progress in Human Geography, 39, 729-751.
PERSSON, A., NEWMAN, C. E., RASMUSSEN, M. L., MARSHALL, D., COVER, R. & AGGLETON, P. (2020): Queerying Notions of "Difference" Among Two Generations of Australians Who Do Not Identify Heteronormatively. Sexuality & Culture, 24, 54-71.

"'Shout out, speak out, do something, express yourself!': a campaign and an online platform to promote children and young people's expression about the media"

Daniel Brandão, Sara Pereira

In this communication we will present the concept, design and analysis of the results of the "Express yourself!" campaign and the online platform "Mural bYou" (muralbyou.pt) — a digital wall that aims to promote the participation and expression of Portuguese children and young people about the media and other issues that concern them.

These initiatives adopted a participatory and reflective methodology and were developed within the scope of the research project "bYou — Study of the experiences and expressions of children and young people about the media", funded by FCT (PTDC/COM-OUT/ 3004/2020), which seeks to listen to and give voice to children and young people aged between 11 and 18, and to study their presence and behaviour in the media, the way they express themselves and their level of digital literacy. According to the data collected in the national survey and focus groups implemented by this project, which corroborate with evidences presented by other research projects, we conclude that children and young people tend to consume more media content than they produce, and their active participation in the media ecosystem is currently still very low.

However, an extensive literature in different academic fields suggests potential benefits of a culture of participation for a more participatory and democratic citizenship, which is one of the main objectives of the initiatives we will present and analyse in this communication. After an introduction about the design process of the campaign and the online platform, this communication will focus on the analysis of the drawings, texts, podcasts, photographs, videos, paintings, poems, among others, created and sent by different children and young people of different ages and from different cities in Portugal, that were organized into themes such as: Friendship, School, Family, Media, Current world issues and Feelings.

Through this analysis it will be possible to know the themes on which children have chosen to express themselves and what place the media occupy there. Expression in this project is considered a means of participation and a way to give children a voice. It is this perspective that we seek to develop and discuss with this presentation.

Keywords: Children and young people, Digital wall, Expression, Participation, Democratic citizenship

"Social media and its impact on the role of English in the life-worlds of Germany’s Gen Z: Autoethnographic explorations"

Susanne Ehrenreich, Nina Pleuger, Lea Klaas, Marie Wiesmann

Repeated anecdotal observation in first-year introductory courses to ELT (English Language Teaching) at a German University suggests that from grade 9 onwards secondary school students in Germany (particularly those who later on chose to become English teachers) improve their English language skills predominantly in out-of-school contexts rather than in the English classroom. This observation inspired one of the presenters of this paper (the university teacher) to develop a seminar aiming to specifically explore the role of English in the life-worlds of Germany’s Gen Z. Autoethnographic reflections on the students‘ individual use of and exposure to English were written and collaboratively analysed, from an emic perspective, with a view to issues of contexts of use, different kinds of Englishes, language choice, attitudes and identity, as well as, particularly relevant for the context of this conference, the role and impact of social media. The analysis confirmed the huge impact of social media not only on language choice, but practically all of the other, related aspects, in this medial context because of its availability, reach and its social relevance. English plays an increasingly important role in the life-worlds of Germany’s Gen Z in the non-local communicative spaces of social media, to the degree that some consider it a normal, additional language in their communicative repertoire. In a true emic manner, the insights gained from analysing the autoethnographic reflections will be presented and discussed by some of the student participants themselves.

"Attitudes of Germany's Gen Z toward the Use of English"

Nina Falter

The role of English in Germany has evolved significantly in the past decades. It is not only relevant in educational and work-related contexts but is increasingly used in the context of leisure time activities. This becomes particularly evident by the crucial role social media plays regarding English in Gen Z's life worlds.
Little research has been conducted addressing the recent role of social media in shaping young Germans' language attitudes toward English. One study, carried out between 2013 and 2015, found that only about 50% of the participants, aged between 20 and 25, use English on social media platforms (Davydova, 2020). Assuming that the impact of social media has changed a lot in recent years, this paper explores Germany's Gen Z current attitudes toward using English on social media and its impact on language learning.

To analyze these attitudes, qualitative interviews were conducted with nine participants aged 16 to 25, who do not engage with English academically. Interview questions targeted reasons for using English on social media, its impact on language learning, comparisons between school English and online usage, and general attitudes toward English influenced by social media. The exploratory qualitative study shows that social media platforms play a crucial role regarding English in the life worlds of Germany's Gen Z. More specifically, social media has the potential to enrich language skills, particularly listening comprehension and colloquial English usage. All participants engage with social media on a daily basis and consume English content regularly, motivated by various intrinsic factors.

More generally, the study in this paper highlights the rapid change of today’s discussed social media use, in this case aspects of language choice. It is crucial to consider the digital world when analyzing the role of English in the lives of young people, as it plays a significant role in shaping their attitudes toward the language.

Davydova, Julia. "English in Germany: Evidence from Domains of Use and Attitudes." Russian Journal of Linguistics, No. 24, Vol. 3 (2020), pp. 687–702. DOI: 10.22363/2687-0088-2020-24-3-687-702.

"Literary Reading in Increasingly Digitised Times: New Materialist Practices with Chilean Tweens"

Macarena Garcia-González, Janos Kovacs, Ignacia Saona

Research on literacy tends to draw a line between the analogue practice of reading printed texts and the variety of digital media engagements of children and young people (Santa María et al, 2022). In schools, literary education is often coupled with desires for boosting literacy indicators - such PIRLS tests - or following the discourse of getting children to read for pleasure with a explicit or implicit aim of keeping them at distance from other media forms (Cremin et al 2014). Yet in recent years, research on literacy and sociology of reading has shown a growing interest in the practices of reading and writing socialisation in digital platforms (Balling et al 2019, Birke 2021). In this presentation, we bring some reflections based on research conducted with tweens (9 to 12 years old) on their reading and media practices and their affordances. The 18 participants in our study —all Chilean and based in Santiago de Chile— have been engaged in an experimental reading promotion programme in which digital texts, printed books, films, videoclips and other art forms are shared and recommended. The participants have been engaged because their parents or school teachers consider them to be children that enjoy reading. Drawing on new materialist sociology (Fox and Alldred 2016), we present their reflections about what counts as reading, and on how reading narrative fiction may be related to other media practices, opening some questions about how to conceptualise and research reading and engagements with children’s literature in increasingly digitised contexts. The study presented has been conducted between 2020 and 2022 which allows us to track emerging and shifting understandings of the affordances of the digital in our media and literary cultures in the (post)pandemic era.

Balling, Gitte, et al. "The young read in new places, the older read on new devices: A survey of digital reading practices among librarians and Information Science students in Denmark." Participations 16.1 (2019): 197-236.
Birke, Dorothee. "Social Reading? On the Rise of a “Bookish” Reading Culture Online". Poetics Today 42 (2): 149–172. doi: https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.gla.ac.uk/10.1215/03335372-8883178
Cremin, Teresa, et al. Building Communities of Engaged Readers: Reading for Pleasure. Routledge, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, Abingdon, Oxon, 2014, doi:10.4324/9781315772585.
Santa María, Luz, Cristina Aliagas, and Kris Rutten. "Youth’s Literary Socialisation Practices Online: A Systematic Review of Research." Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, vol. 34, 2022, pp. 100628.

"Künstliche Intelligenz und Kommunikation: Wie kommunizieren junge Menschen im Alter von 18-30 Jahren mit der KI?"

Petra Herczeg

Eine qualitative Studie zu den Einstellungen und Wahrnehmungen von Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, Microsoft Cortana oder Apple Siri

Ausgehend von der Mensch-Maschine-Kommunikation nach Guzman und Lewis (2020) und Omrain et al. (2022), die Künstliche Intelligenz als "an anthropomorphized process with a human-like reasoning" (S. 1) definierten, werden in der Präsentation Ergebnisse einer qualitativen Studie vorgestellt, in der junge Menschen zu ihren Praktiken in der Kommunikation mit KI-Tools interviewt worden sind.

Im Rahmen eines gemeinsamen Forschungsseminars wurde das Projekt mit Studierenden umgesetzt. Interessant ist dabei auch die Reflexion der Studierenden zum Forschungsgegenstand selbst, da sie ja selbst Nutzer:innen sind und über ihr eigenes Kommunikationsverhalten nachdenken und dieses dann wiederum zum Forschungsgegenstand in Bezug setzen.
Um zu verstehen, wie die Kommunikationsbeziehungen mit KI-Tools gestaltet sind, wurden qualitative Interviews geführt (n = 22). In der theoretischen Konzeption hat "Vertrauen" eine Schlüsselfunktion in der Kommunikation zwischen Menschen und auch bei der Interaktion mit der KI. Bei der Interaktion mit KI-Tools erfolgt die "Belohnung" nach einem Reiz-Reaktionsschema sofort. KI erfüllt als Humanoid oder als "treues Haustier" viele Erwartungen und Sehnsüchte von Menschen, die reale Personen nicht immer leisten können oder wollen. Durch digitale Medien hat sich die soziale Kommunikation (Hepp, 2021) verändert und durch die Veränderungen ergeben sich auch neue Beziehungsformen bzw. -normen. KI-Tools verfügen über keine Emotionen und die Bindung zu KI-Tools ist abhängig von den Nutzungsmotiven (Noor et al., 2021).

Die Interviews aus dem Forschungsseminar wurden mit MAXQDA ausgewertet, und die ersten Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Interviewpersonen gerne und häufig KI-Tools verwenden. Dies sowohl in Arbeits- (auch Uni-) und privaten Kontexten. Dabei werden den KI-Tools Eigenschaften wie "schlau, schnell und smart" zugeschrieben, und den KI-Tools wird einerseits wenig Vertrauen entgegengebracht, aber andererseits wird darauf verwiesen, dass mit KI-Tools Themen besprochen werden (können), die mit Freunden nicht thematisiert werden ("Wem soll die Alexa das auch sagen"), wie zum Beispiel sensible Fragen zu Gesundheitsthemen. Und es werden der KI Konsequenzen "angedroht", wie sie in zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen vorkommen. Eine Interviewperson meinte zu ihrer Beziehung zu KI-Tools: "Bestrafen kann ich ihn schlecht, also wiederhole ich meinen Befehl und hoffe, dass er es beim zweiten Mal richtig macht".

Diese Ambivalenz der Kommunikationsbeziehungen mit KI-Tools, die rationale Einsicht in die technologische Nutzbarkeit und auch die emotionale Beziehungsebene werden im Beitrag ausgehend von den empirischen Befunden diskutiert.

Guzman, A.L., & Lewis, S.C. (2020). Artificial intelligence and communication: A Human-Machine Communication research agenda. New Media & Society, 22, 70–86.
Hepp, A. (2021). Auf dem Weg zur digitalen Gesellschaft. Über die tiefgreifende Mediatisierung der sozialen Welt. Köln: Halem.
Noor, N., et al. (2021). Artificial Intelligence Service Agents: Role of Parasocial Relationship. Journal of Computer Information Systems, DOI:10.1080/08874417.2021.1962213
Omraini, N., et al. (2022). To trust or not to trust? An assessment of trust in AI-based systems: Concerns, ethics and contexts. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 181, DOI:10.1016/j.techfore.2022.121763

"Plädoyer für die schulische Berücksichtigung einer postdigitalen Mehrsprachigkeit"

Elke Höfler

Als Peter Koch und Wulf Oesterreicher in den 1980er-Jahren ihren Artikel zur "Sprache der Nähe – Sprache der Distanz" (1985) veröffentlichen und dabei erkennen, dass die gesprochene Sprache im Gegensatz zur geschriebenen Sprache nicht als defizitär zu betrachten sei, können sie die sprachlichen Entwicklungen der zunehmenden Digitalisierung nicht vorhersehen. Knapp 20 Jahre später kommt Ilka Willand (2002) in Bezug auf die infolge der Digitalisierung zunehmende Kommunikation in Chatrooms zu einem ähnlichen Befund.

Weitere knapp 20 Jahre später spricht man nicht mehr von Digitalisierung, sondern von Postdigitalität. Die Grenzen zwischen Digitalem und Analogem, von Nähe und Distanz sowie zwischen Privatheit und Öffentlichkeit (vgl. Kucklick 2017, Stalder 2017) haben sich ebenso wie die klassischen Rollenbilder von Autor:in, Leser:in und Verleger:in (vgl. Kerres 2018) aufgelöst. Jugendliche der Generationen Z und Alpha unterscheiden nicht mehr zwischen einer digitalen und einer analogen Welt (vgl. Rieber 2023), sie leben aufgrund der medienbiographischen Rahmenbedingungen in einer postdigitalen Welt, in der Analoges und Digitales hybrid zu denken sind. Diese Hybridisierung der Lebenswelt wirkt auch auf Kommunikation und Sprachverwendung zurück: Kommunikative Kompetenz setzt die Kenntnis verschiedener (impliziter) Normen, Entwicklungen und Konventionen (vgl. Coseriu 2007) und eine daraus resultierende notwendige Auswahl an die Postdigitalität angepasster Kommunikationsformen und -strategien voraus.

Dieser Beitrag versteht sich als Plädoyer für eine schulische Berücksichtigung und Förderung einer postdigitalen Mehrsprachigkeit, die aktuelle sprachliche Phänomene, die sich aus der Auflösung der klar getrennten Bereiche von Privatheit und Öffentlichkeit in Social-Media-Anwendungen (vgl. Reckwitz 2019, Stalder 2017) und folglich der Ebenen von Konzeption und Realisierung (vgl. Koch & Oesterreicher 1985) sowie von Nähe und Distanz in den Blick nimmt. Als Basis dienen Mario Wandruszkas Überlegungen zur "muttersprachliche[n] Mehrsprachigkeit" (1975: 322), auf die eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Kompetenzbeschreibungen zur Online-Interaktion im Begleitband des Gemeinsamen Europäischen Referenzrahmens für Sprachen: lernen, lehren, beurteilen (Council of Europe 2023) aufsetzen. Der Forderung des Lehrplans für das in Österreich mit dem Schuljahr 2022/23 eingeführte Unterrichtsfach "Digitale Grundbildung", "unmittelbare Konsequenzen der Digitalisierung für Wissen und Bildung zu berücksichtigen sowie aktuelle Themen und Entwicklungen kritisch und reflektiert aufzugreifen" (Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung 2022: 3) soll dabei Rechnung getragen und fächerübergreifende Anknüpfungspunkte aufgezeigt werden.

Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung (2022): BGBl. II - Ausgegeben am 6. Juli 2022 - Nr. 267. Digitale Grundbildung. Online: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblAuth/BGBLA_2022_II_267/BGBLA_2022_II_267.pdfsig (31. Juli 2023)
Coseriu, Eugenio (2007): Sprachkompetenz. Grundzüge der Theorie des Sprechens. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Heinrich Weber. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto.
Council of Europe (2023): Gemeinsamen Europäischen Referenzrahmens für Sprachen: lernen, lehren, beurteilen. Begleitband. Stuttgart: Klett.
Kerres, Michael (2018): Mediendidaktik. Konzeption und Entwicklung digitaler Lernangebote. Oldenbourg: De Gruyter.
Koch, Peter & Oesterreicher, Wulf (1985): "Sprache der Nähe – Sprache der Distanz. Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit im Spannungsfeld von Sprachtheorie und Sprachgeschichte", in: Romanistisches Jahrbuch 36, 15-43.
Kucklick, Christoph (2017): Die granulare Gesellschaft. Wie das Digitale unsere Wirklichkeit auflöst, Berlin: Ullstein.
Reckwitz, Andreas (2019): Die Gesellschaft der Singularitäten. Zum Strukturwandel der Moderne, Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Rieber, Nicole (2023): Digitale Friedenspädagogik in Krisenzeiten (06.04.2023). Online: https://www.gew.de/aktuelles/detailseite/digitale-friedenspaedagogik-in-krisenzeiten [31. Juli 2023].
Stalder, Felix (2017): Kultur der Digitalität, Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Wandruszka, Mario (1975): "Mehrsprachigkeit", in: Moser, Hugo (Hrsg.): Sprachwissenschaft und Sprachdidaktik. Düsseldorf: Schwann, 321–350.
Willand, Ilka (2002): Chatroom statt Marktplatz: Identität und Kommunikation zwischen Öffentlichkeit und Privatheit, München: kopaed.

"Plurality of trust: A qualitative analysis of young people’s media use and media literacy in Austria and Finland"

Minna Horowitz, Gisela Reiter, Janne Matikainen

Young people's relationship with the media has in recent years been a cause of concern, especially due to the role of social media as an entertainment and news source and a central component of their lives, often seen as a prominent cause of the declining trust in legacy media. But is the equation so simple?

This presentation focuses on young adults' media usage and the factors impacting their trust in media. The analysis is closely linked to theoretical approaches dealing with parameters like habitual patterns of use and ritualized content structures as well as indicators of trust and media literacy.

The analysis is based on multiple qualitative research materials. In Finland, a three-day online discussion of 30 young people (2020, 18-29-year-olds), and seven focus group interviews (2021-22, 18-29-year-olds) have been included in the analysis. The study in Austria entails 20 qualitative interviews in 2020 and 2023 (18-25-year-olds). The studies partly share the same themes of media use, experiences of journalism, and trust in different media.

Analyses of these multimethod research efforts reveal different strategies of media use and various dimensions of trust linked to certain media outlets. All the studies point to the central role of social media and the importance of peers and other, specific epistemic communities. Still, young people respect traditional journalistic values. They are highly media literate, understanding the motives of market-driven sensational reporting and the dangers of social media echo chambers as news sources.

At the same time, the results speak for the need to consider cultural and societal differences when interpreting the results – not only between countries but between different groups of young people. The results indicate that the interviewees view transparency, plural and equal presentation of perspectives, and meeting the needs of various young audiences, as important dimensions for building trust.

The multidimensionality of trust, much discussed in recent research, entails both generalized trust in (legacy) media, as well as specific experiences regarding sources, topics, and the individual's disposition, including one's demographics and identity factors. This analysis suggests that the idea of trust as a pluralistic concept becomes especially important both in research design but also in media literacy practices and journalistic efforts to reach different groups of young audiences.

"Virtuelle Realitäten im erfahrungsorientierten Lernen von Jugendlichen"

Jochen Hotstegs, Fabian Heyer, Thomas Sablotny

Die Digitalisierung ist im Alltag von Jugendlichen sichtbar und durchzieht diverse Lebensbereiche. Doch nicht nur der Alltag der Jugendlichen wird digitaler, auch die spezialisierten Methoden mit den pädagogischen und therapeutischen Angeboten entwickeln sich entsprechend weiter. Digitale Brillen für das Erleben einer virtuellen Realität sind seit Jahrzehnten in professionellen Anwendungsbereichen zu finden. Ob in der Traumatherapie (Eichenberg 2007), der Schulpädagogik (Lugrin 2018), bei einem Museumsbesuch (Frischbier 2023) oder in der Freizeitgestaltung. Mit einem zunehmend finanziell leichteren Zugang zu der Technik wurden stetig neue Anwendungsmöglichkeiten entwickelt sowie bestehende Methoden in die digitale Welt übertragen (Krol 2014; Janssen 2017). Insbesondere die Entwicklungen rund um Google Cardboard oder die VR-Brillen von Oculus haben diese Entwicklung positiv beeinflusst.

Drei Beispiele, beruhend auf Praxisbeschreibungen von Fachkräften, in spezialisierten Tätigkeitsfeldern geben einen Einblick, welche Möglichkeiten sich durch den Einsatz von VR-Brillen in Pädagogik und Therapie ergeben. Anhand von Erfahrungsberichten aus der Erlebnistherapie wird ersichtlich, wie Naturräume digital erfasst werden können, um diese orts- und zeitunabhängig in den Therapiesitzungen nutzbar machen zu können (Hotstegs 2018). Die KlientInnen erfassen für sie bedeutsame Naturräume und Situationen, um diese anschließend in der Beziehungsarbeit und zur Behandlung zu nutzen. In der Erlebnispädagogik können Jugendliche mit Hilfe VR-Brillen verschiedene Aktivitäten und Szenarien erleben, die ihnen ohne diese Technologie nur mit einem zusätzlichen Aufwand zugänglich gemacht werden könnten. Durch die Anwendungen werden gezielt Lernerfahrungen ermöglicht und die Entwicklung des Selbstwerts unterstützt. In der Erlebnispädagogik können so zum einen erste Erfahrungen mit den Aktivitäten gesammelt werden. Zum anderen ermöglicht der Einsatz der VR-Brillen aber auch die Gelegenheit, Unterschiede zwischen der virtuellen und der physischen Welt erlebbar zu machen. Das dritte Beispiel zeigt die Einsatzmöglichkeiten von VR-Brillen in der Traumapädagogik auf. Im Rahmen eines traumapädagogischen Projektes in einer stationären und intensivpädagogischen Jugendhilfeeinrichtung des Neukirchener Erziehungsvereins wurde ein Programm für einen digitalen Stärkerahmen entwickelt. Mit Hilfe des digitalen Stärkerahmens können traumatisierte Jugendliche neues Selbstvertrauen in die eigenen Fähigkeiten gewinnen und einen sicheren digitalen Ort erleben.
Anhand der drei Beispiele werden nicht nur die Möglichkeiten der Technologie in Verbindung mit pädagogischen und therapeutischen Konzepten aufgezeigt, sondern auch die Grenzen und Herausforderungen thematisiert.

Eichenberg, C. (2007). Einsatz von „virtuellen Realitäten" in der Psychotherapie. In: Psychotherapeut. 52.
S. 362–367.
Frischbier, D., Kranz, L., & Eisenlauer, V. (2023). DiMuVR–Digitales Museum VR: Eine virtuelle Exkursion durch ein 360°-Museum. DOI: 10.18420/avril2023_07
Hotstegs, J. (2018). Virtuelle Realitäten im erfahrungsorientierten Lernen. In: Schettgen, P.; Ferstl, A. & Bous, B. (Hrsg.). Einmischen Possible. Augsburg: Ziel Verlag. S. 218-227.
Janssen, J.-K. (2017): Mit dem Akkuschrauber am ICE 4: Deutsche Bahn lernt in VR. Hamburg: Heise Medien GmbH & Co. KG. URL: heise.de/-3664274
Krol, A.-K. (2014): Virtueller Coach: Der Avatar als Strategie-Arbeiter. In: wissensmanagement. 4/2014. S. 28-29.
Lugrin, J.-L. et al. (2018). Benchmark Framewor for Virtual Students' Behaviours. In: Proc. of the 17th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2018)

"Millennials Knowledge of the Internet Vocabulary"

Michaela Hrotekova

When examining language change, words are the most salient features of the language. The experience of encountering recurring words and phrases while reading posts or comments on the Internet yet struggling to comprehend their actual meaning happens to both native and non-native English speakers. Language communities between 27 – 42 years old, referred to as "millennials", whose upbringing coincided with the evolution of social networks and digital platforms, witnessed the emergence of Internet-based vocabulary and the prominence of online communication. However, the swift emergence of novel digital media, the fluid migration of the online population across these spaces, and the simultaneous use of multiple platforms present a distinct challenge in staying up-to-date with the evolving linguistic landscape. Prominent social media and digital platforms, characterized by substantial user bases, wield significant influence as pioneers of lexical innovation. These digital spaces continually introduce new words and idiomatic expressions that cater to specific contextual needs or arise from emerging conceptual frameworks, e.g., new features (unfriend), people (Youtuber), professions (online community manager), etc. Yet, only a select portion of new terms gains long-term popularity, becomes trendy, and is eventually incorporated into users' linguistic repertoires.

This investigation identifies primary factors that contribute to the recognition and knowledge of novel vocabulary. To what extent do age, cultural background, and daily exposure to social media increase vocabulary knowledge, and how well do respondents age 27 - 42 know the selected Internet vocabulary? These questions and related queries were addressed through the collection of responses from a diverse group of 200 millennials worldwide.

The findings of this empirical inquiry reveal a noticeable sense of concern among participants, evident in their expressions of frustration regarding the challenge of understanding new terminology as time advances. This underscores the importance of cultivating an awareness of emerging vocabulary and language trends within the realm of social media. Such awareness not only contributes to enhancing digital literacy and professional skills but also improves communication effectiveness and helps bridge sociolinguistic gaps.

Key words: new words, social media, Internet, millennials

"Reading-as-design: Young children as co-designers of the texts"

Nermin Karademir

Reading can narrowly be defined as 'getting meaning from a written text' and widely as 'making sense of the world' (Kress, 2003). While the traditional understanding of reading heavily relies on the written and oral mediums, it has been widely discussed that the increasing multimodal forms of contemporary texts make it essential to rethink our notions of what reading is. The overall idea is that we make meaning by reading the world (interacting with the signs), interpreting these signs according to our sociocultural context, and creating a new meaning and narrative unique to us.

However, not all reading is the same, as we position ourselves differently when making meaning from the signs of a written or visual text. The written text has a linear ‘reading path’ (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2020) which needs to be followed hierarchically (i.e., syntax, the shape of the letters). In contrast, the reading path of a visual text does not have such a clear set of rules and is, therefore, idiosyncratic. This unique function of creating one’s own path was suggested as 'designing' the text (Kress, 2003: 151), leading to the readers being called as ‘designers’ of the text and their own meaning. However, still, this design process is not purely individual. Because individual readers do, in fact, act by the established practices of reading and make their own meaning as also affected by the overarching sociocultural context.

In this presentation, I am going to explore the conceptualisation of reading-as-design as proposed by Gunther Kress and implement it to children’s digital reading practices on iPads. Using two narrative apps as my cases, I will explain how children, along with the designers and producers of the apps, design, and co-design digital texts they read. I will also be using Michael Halliday’s (1978) three meta functions namely ideational, textual and interpersonal in analysing the interactions between digital texts and children.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. London: Edward Arnold.
Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. Routledge.
Kress, G., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2020). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. Routledge.

"Sprachliche Bildung in einer Kultur der Digitalität – Implikationen für Unterricht und Lehrpersonenfortbildung"

Alexandra Kemmerer, Annika Janßen, Jan-Erik Leonhardt, Johannes Mayer, Britta Viebrock

Die Digitalisierung verändert die Anforderungen an die sprachliche Bildung junger Menschen (Stalder, 2016). Die Grenzen zwischen mündlicher und schriftlicher Sprache verschwimmen, KI-Tools ermöglichen neue Kommunikationsformen, literarische Texte treten in verschiedenen medialen Repräsentationsformen auf und Kulturen werden dynamischer. Insbesondere für Lehrpersonen sind im Kontext eines sich verändernden Text- und Kommunikationsbegriffs sowohl praktische Kenntnisse digitaler Anwendungen als auch text- und medienreflexive Zugänge nötig, um sprachliche Lernprozesse von Heranwachsenden zu unterstützen. Das Konzept der digitalen Souveränität (in Anlehnung an Frederking & Krommer, 2022) verbindet diese Dimensionen und bildet den Leitgedanken des Projekts [Projektname zu Zwecken der Anonymisierung entfernt], welches anhand des Teilprojektes [Teilprojektname zu Zwecken der Anonymisierung entfernt] vorgestellt wird. In [Teilprojektname] entstehen Fortbildungsformate, die unterschiedliche Akteur:innen der sprachlichen Bildung (Lehrpersonen, Forschende, Fortbildende, Stakeholder etc.) miteinander vernetzen mit dem Ziel der Innovation, Qualitätssicherung und Verstetigung digitalisierter Lehr-Lern-Praktiken. Thematisch befassen sich die Netzwerke mit Literaturvermittlung im Kontext der Digitalität sowie mit neuen Sichtweisen auf Fragen der Literaturästhetik, Autor:innenschaft, Distribution und veränderter Textualität.

Der Vortrag diskutiert zunächst den sich wandelnden Text- und Kommunikationsbegriff sowie daraus folgende Anforderungen an die Lehrpersonenfortbildung. Anschließend werden exemplarisch Fortbildungsangebote für die Fächer Deutsch und Englisch vorgestellt, welche im Rahmen der [Teilprojektname]-Netzwerke in Kooperation mit den Akteur:innen entwickelt werden.

Frederking, V. & Krommer, A. (2022). Sprachliche, literarische und mediale Bildung in der digitalen Welt. In V. Frederking & R. Romeike (Hrsg.), Fachliche Bildung in der digitalen Welt. Digitalisierung, Big Data und KI im Forschungsfokus von 15 Fachdidaktiken. (S. 82-120). Münster: Waxmann.
Stalder, F. (2016). Kultur der Digitalität. Suhrkamp.

"Youthful Tastes: The Role of Digital Media and Taste in Young Danish People's Construction of ‘Youth Culture’"

Johanne Kirkeby, Vinicio Ntouvlis

The categories 'youth' and 'youth culture' are frequently problematized as too static, most recently in Danish public discourse by the Danish youth council (Public service-ungerådet et al., 2023). In sociolinguistic research, essentialist understandings of youth as a fixed identity aspect have long been discarded in favour of a focus on localized discursive constructions of youth culture (e.g. Androutsopoulos & Georagakopoulou, 2003). In this context, this presentation investigates the role of digital media and media ideologies in constructing the cultural category of ‘young’, by foregrounding the participant/insider understanding offered by a group of 17/18-year-old friends in Denmark.

Drawing on an ethnographic study of Danish secondary school students’ media practices, we concentrate primarily on a focus group interview involving four friends. Our analysis examines the students’ appropriation of cultural stuff through the transcultural flows of digital media (Pennycook, 2007) for the construction of their discursive identities as young people. The findings suggest that, in the students’ spontaneous reflexive discourse, youth culture is intrinsically tied to media ideologies influencing the acquisition of cultural capital, which ultimately comes to delineate emergent communities of taste (Paßmann & Schubert, 2021). We thus highlight taste as a unifying dimension in young people's identity construction as informed by their media practices. Further, through this case study, we exemplify how an empirical approach rooted in participant perspectives can be used for problematizing 'youth culture' as a unitary label and showing how the 'thick' identity category of 'age group' is complexly modulated, diversified, and even outweighed by 'lighter' forms of identity shaped through individuals' media practices.

Androutsopoulos, J.K., & Georagakopoulou, A. (2003). Discourse constructions of youth identities: Introduction. Discourse constructions of youth identities. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Paßmann, J., & Schubert, C. (2021). "Liking as taste making: Social media practices as generators of aesthetic valuation and distinction". New Media & Society, 23(10), 2947-2963.
Pennycook, A. (2007). Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows. Routledge.
Public service-ungerådet, DUF og Landdistrikternes Fælles, & DR. (2023, June 8). Unges Syn på Mediebranchen, Christiansborg, Copenhagen, Denmark.

"English Words Everywhere: Exploring English in the Linguistic Landscape within a Montessori Pedagogy Framework"

Petra Kletzenbauer, Ulla Fürstenberg

Unlike traditional pedagogical approaches, Montessori pedagogy is mainly characterized by curiosity-driven learning in a prepared environment encouraging independent and hands-on learning practices which encourage young learners to discover new skills. This is also true when it comes to learning a foreign language.

Linguistic Landscape tasks fit in well with this approach to language learning as they offer language learners the chance to observe various characteristics of the L2 in their environment (as discussed by Sayer, 2010; Rowland, 2013) and encourage them to interact with diverse aspects of the language in a creative and critical manner, thus fostering "learners' explicit understanding of language as well as an awareness of their own learning by involving them in discovery-oriented tasks" (Borg, 1994, p. 62). This leads to new and profound understandings of the social, cultural, and economic significance of the L2, such as the role of English as a global language, on the part of the learners. In addition to fostering language awareness, an active and learner-centered engagement with linguistic landscapes (LLs) can also serve as a catalyst for initiating language learning in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context.

Our study was carried out at a recently founded Montessori school in a rural region of Austria whose curriculum focuses on English as well as science. The learners who participated in the study were between 6 and 14 years old. By means of self-observations and reflective tasks which map and reflect the learners’ language learning experience, the study aims to investigate learners’ engagement with LLs in guided discovery tasks and its effect on their language learning experience and emerging language awareness.

In our talk, we will discuss the challenges and perspectives of teaching English in a non- traditional school setting. We will present the tasks we developed to spark curiosity-driven learning by encouraging young learners to engage with English in the Linguistic Landscape and their (digital) environments more generally. Finally, we will discuss the findings of our study and some implications for language learning within a Montessori pedagogy framework.

"Big Data Literacy: An Educational Manual for Adolescents"

Ana Kubrusly

The present paper describes and reflects upon the process of constructing an educational manual aimed at developing the big data literacy of adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age. Within the scope of this work, big data is recognized as a multidimensional phenomenon, with relevant social, cultural, political, and economic implications (boyd & Crawford, 2012) that deeply affects youth’s lives and futures (Mascheroni & Siibak, 2021). Nonetheless, research shows that young people are largely unaware of big data’s effects on society (Robertson & Tisdall, 2020., Marwick & Hargittai, 2019) and often feel apathetic or powerless regarding potential attitudes of resistance in relation to their digital privacy and the datafication of their lives (Selwyn & Pangrazio, 2018). In this context, the importance of big data literacy – broadly defined in this paper as the necessary set of skills and knowledge to understand and critically interact with big data, being able to identify and deal with its impacts – is increasingly recognized within the scientific community (Sander, 2020). Through an in-depth literature review, thematic content analyses of existing educational resources, and semi-structured interviews with adolescents, a final version of a big data literacy manual is reached, including interactive activities and real-life examples of the impacts, risks, and opportunities related to datafication. Moreover, challenges, such as gaps in the literature and the search for engaging pedagogical strategies are identified and discussed. Beyond raising awareness on the big data phenomenon and how it is particularly relevant to youth’s lives, the manual aims to empower young people and encourage them to confidently occupy their roles as citizens in shaping the future of technology.

"Fluide Identitätsaushandlungen in verschränkten Online-Offline-Räumen: Das Smartphone als Forschungsinstrument"

Andrea Markl, Belinda Mahlknecht, Tabea Bork-Hüffer

Das vom FWF geförderte Projekt beYOND untersucht, wie junge Erwachsene Aspekte ihrer Identität und Prozesse der Inklusion-Exklusion sowie verschiedene Formen von Gewalt in verschränkten Online- Offline-Räumen verhandeln und erleben. Wir wenden einen jugendzentrierten, ethisch reflektierten, qualitativen Multimethoden-Ansatz an, der 380 schriftliche Erzählungen, 20 Tiefeninterviews und erste Erkenntnisse aus einer Längsschnittstudie mit 15 Mobile-Messenger-Dossiers (MMDs) umfasst, die bis Januar 2024 laufen wird. Dieser Beitrag konzentriert sich auf die Vielfalt bewusster Strategien junger Erwachsener, um zwischen vermeintlich getrennten Online- und Offline-Räumen zu navigieren und dabei gezielt Aspekte ihrer Identität für ein bestimmtes Zielpublikum zu offenbaren oder zu verbergen. Neben diesem thematisch-konzeptionellen Fokus, der sich aus der ersten Analyse des multimedialen Datenmaterials ergibt, eröffnen wir die Diskussion über den Mehrwert der Nutzung des Messaging-Dienstes WhatsApp in einer Langzeitstudie, um fluide und dynamische Identitätsaushandlungen besser zu verstehen.

Die Komplexität, Fluidität und Kontroversität von Identitätsaushandlungen und damit verbundenen Gewalterfahrungen werden exemplarisch anhand eines Teilnehmers beleuchtet. Er zeigt, wie er Räume strategisch nutzt, um prägende Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen zu verarbeiten und sich mit selbst erlebten Ungerechtigkeiten auseinanderzusetzen. Er erstellt anonym mehrere Online-Identitäten mit bewusst gewählten Pseudonymen. Auf künstlerisch-kreative Weise (re-)produziert er so online die erlebten Erfahrungen und Praktiken und versucht Machtverhältnisse und bestehende Hierarchien im sozio-materiellen Raum aufzubrechen. Diese sensiblen und intimen Einblicke resultieren insbesondere aus der MMD-Erhebungsphase, die vom beYOND-Team als innovative mobile Methode für die individuelle Begleitung junger Erwachsener in der Übergangsphase kurz vor, während und nach dem Schulabschluss entwickelt wurde. Die Methode ermöglicht es den Teilnehmenden, sich kontinuierlich und ortsunabhängig über multimediale Inhalte (Sprachnachrichten, Bilder, Screenshots, Videos...) über ihre Erfahrungen in verschränkten Online-Offline-Räumen mit den Forschenden auszutauschen und diese zu reflektieren.

Durch den ereignisbasierten Austausch über einen längeren Zeitraum hinweg, der traditionelle retrospektive Methoden ergänzt, ermöglichen MMDs tiefe Einblicke in die alltäglichen Identitätsaushandlungen und die damit verbundenen Strategien und Emotionen junger Erwachsener und tragen zu einem besseren Verständnis ihrer Entstehung, Dynamik und Entwicklung bei. Im Kontext der individuellen Verarbeitung sehr persönlicher und intimer Erfahrungen und damit verbundener Gewalterfahrungen junger Erwachsener bedeutet dies, dass wir Einblicke in das bewusste Hin- und Herdriften und strategische Aushandeln verschiedener Identitäten in sozio-materiell-technologischen Räumen erhalten.

Schlüsselwörter: digitale Technologien; junge Erwachsene; Gewalterfahrungen; qualitatives, jugendzentriertes Multimethoden-Forschungsdesign; Mobile Messenger; Identitätsaushandlungen; verschränkte Online-Offline-Räume;

"Integrating Disciplinary Literacy and Digital Literacy Through Nonfiction Digital Storytelling"

Tiziana Mascia, Alessandra Mazzini

Grounded in the theory of disciplinary literacy — defined as the ability to interpret, create, and communicate content within specific disciplines (Shanahan & Shanahan, 2012; Lent, 2015) — this study examines how nonfiction digital storytelling can expand the reach of digital literacy beyond operational tasks to encompass disciplinary literacy interactions (Mascia & Aerila, 2023; Tinmaz et al., 2022). The study introduces a pedagogical approach that guides students through two main stages. Initially, students apply their information literacy skills to gather data from various sources, enhancing research and evaluation skills. Subsequently, they use digital storytelling and collaborate to transform this information into non-narrative stories, promoting comprehension and expression skills in the broader realm of digital literacy. During this process they refer to emerging narrative models of new non-fiction children's literature and exploit platforms such as Wattpad, which promote cultural participation (Tirocchi, 2018).

To evaluate the process, this study adopts a mixed-methods approach with a sample comprising students from diverse schools. Quantitative data are collected via pre and post tests aimed at measuring the enhancement of disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Qualitative analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with students, direct observation of their digital storytelling process, and an examination of their storytelling products. Furthermore, students' comments and interactions on the Wattpad platform are analyzed to assess reader engagement and experience.

This presentation focuses on the pedagogical framework and its theoretical foundations, showing a potential application of disciplinary literacy within the broad domain of digital literacy and its implications for both educators and learners.

Lent, R. C. (2015). This is disciplinary literacy: Reading, writing, thinking, and doing... content area by content area. Corwin Press.
Mascia, T., & Aerila, J. A. (2023). Exploring the field of digital children’s literature and its opportunities for literacy education. Nuova Secondaria, XL(9), 124-137.
Shanahan, T., & Shanahan, C. (2012). What is disciplinary literacy and why does it matter? Topics in Language Disorders, 32(1), 7-18.
Tinmaz, H., Lee, Y. T., Fanea-Ivanovici, M., & Baber, H. (2022). A systematic review on digital literacy.
Smart Learning Environments, 9(1), 1-18.
Tirocchi, S. (2018). Wattpad. In Teens, media and collaborative cultures. Exploiting teens’ transmedia skills in the classroom (pp. 93-97). Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

"#booktube #bookstagram #booktok - Zur Beeinflussung von Lesepraktiken durch die Präsentation und Rezension von Literatur in Social Media"

Christian Müller, Anna Bauer

Die Präsentation und Rezension von Literatur durch und für jugendliche Leser:innen findet in sozialen Netzwerken wie YouTube, Instagram und TikTok statt. Jugendliche machen dabei bislang positiv zu bewertende subjektive "Erfahrungen der Selbstwirksamkeit in einer von Erwachsenen getrennten Lesewelt" (Lauer 2020, S. 7). Was sich verändert hat: Der professionelle Literaturbetrieb hat die digitalen Spielarten der Präsentationen und Wertungen von Literatur längst für sich entdeckt und greift über meist junge Nutzer:innen sowie Autor:innen in die genuin jugendlichen Strömungen ein. Unter z. B. dem hashtag #booktok auf TikTok promoten mittlerweile auch Verlage ihre Werke auf eigenen TikTok-Kanälen. Im Vortrag sollen zunächst Entwicklungslinien der Literaturpräsentation und -rezension anhand der genannten sozialen Netzwerke aufgezeigt werden. Im Anschluss liegt der Fokus auf diversen hashtags, unter denen videobasierte multimodale Darstellungen zu finden sind. Exemplarisch werden sprachliche und audiovisuelle Phänomene im Kontext gemeinschaftlichen Lesens in Communities sowie Rezensionen vorgestellt und auf die Beeinflussung jugendlicher Lesepraktiken hin diskutiert.

Lauer, Gerhard (2020): Lesen im digitalen Zeitalter. Darmstadt: wgb.

"Bridging educational paradigms: Should we make space for digital play in schools?"

Elizabeth Nelson, Rachel Lees

This paper offers a discussion that draws on two paradigms which both sit within the discipline of education: teacher education and everyday literacies. The authors' work both focus on digital play, however, while Nelson examines traditional forms of playground play in the post-digital age, Lees' work focuses on the potential role of videogames within a multiliteracies pedagogical approach. The concepts of play, games, the role of the digital and even who constitutes a 'youth' are complex and contested concepts. In this paper, we consider theory, curriculum frameworks and practice to examine the realities and potentials of young people's everyday media in schools.

The authors will first outline their theoretical positionings in relation to play, new media and digital games; then present a close reading of the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence Framework to outline the current affordances of play and media for young people. Particular attention will be paid to the inclusive concept of a "text"; then drawing on teaching practice to elucidate the current state of schools, examining the realities of teaching environments and methods to offer some tentative ways forward for schools. Throughout this discussion, we aim to carefully and respectfully consider how our two approaches to understanding children's media lives in the post-digital world can learn from each other to better support young people as they encounter and develop through their experiences of play.

"The Quest for Female Agency and the Paradox of Compound Oppression: A post-structural Feminist Reading of Ethiopian Young Adult Novels in English"

Yared Obsie

This paper explores portraits of the agency of young adult females as they are represented in contemporary Ethiopian young adult feminist novels in English. The research upon which this paper is based aims to identify how young adult female protagonists are represented-especially in power relations with normative and patriarchal adults-and how they deal and negotiate power therein. To capture the protagonist's depiction of agency, a conceptual framework has been built based on three convergent conceptions of power and subjectivity from post-structural theories: Foucault's conception of control and resistance; Nikolajevia's conception of aetonormativivty, and Butler's conception of performativity. With this conceptual framework, textual analysis as a form of qualitative research methodology has been employed for the analysis of the following (selected) young adult novels: Gebeyew Ayele's Escape (2011); Asfaw Legesse's Changed Fate (2019); Eyob Getahun's Behind the Invisible Bars (2013) and Hiwot Walelign's Somebody's Daughter (2018). In addition, literatures and related works on the subject matter have been consulted and reviewed. This research (i.e. the outcome of the novel's) has pointed out that there are many forms of aetonormative and patriarchal power relations between young adults and adult characters. In almost all the novels analyzed, young adult females are placed under a bimodal oppression that goes from adult to young adult females: one mode is patriarchal; the other is in terms of normative age difference. Analysis made on adult characters also confirms that they are not aware of their domination and the fact that young adults also have their own opinion and needs. Within the selected novels analyzed, some minor young adult females are depicted as passive, subservient and submissive to the adult's control. Despite adult's domination, most of the young adult female protagonists analyzed in this selection were found to be independent, brave and intelligent through exercising of their personal agency. Thus, they can be considered as active agents for themselves. In this way, the subversive nature of the author's depiction in this young adult genre is shown. The analysis also revealed that female young adults are not only represented as active agents in the power relations they are ascribed to compete, some are depicted as moral agents who confirm adult norms-a paradox against the adult's labeling of them as juvenile, immature and weak. Furthermore, with the exception of one novel, analysis shows how literary works can be empowering. As most of the authors have depicted independent and active agents, the researcher concludes that the literary works selected for this study are also progressive from feminist perspective. What is embedded in the outcome of the novel's analysis is depiction of most protagonists as being agentic through their media exposure to the digital world. In this regard, the study implicates the power and impact of media practice of youth in claiming and counterclaiming the aetonormative- patriarchal control of adults. However, as the present research is only a case study of the selected novels in the national catalogue, wider generalization cannot be made. 

"Vocabulary Learning from Audiovisual Input at First Exposure to a Foreign Language"

Paulina Olender, Imma Miralpeix

Exposure to digital media has raised exponentially the last few years, and quite a lot of research has studied its effects on learning when input is provided in a second language (L2) (e.g., Mayer, 2009; Vanderplank, 2016; Muñoz, 2022; among others). However, no studies to date have explored the usefulness of multimedia resources, such as captioned TV series, to start learning an L2 from scratch. Previous literature has shown a beneficial effect of multimodal input on L2 vocabulary learning in beginner learners (e.g., Liao et al., 2020). Also, Gullberg et al. (2010, 2012) and Miralpeix et al. (2023) reported vocabulary gains after very short exposure to multimodal input in a language completely unknown to the participants (Dutch and Polish respectively).

In this study, two groups of Spanish/Catalan L1 speakers were asked to watch a 26- minute episode of a TV series in Italian either with captions (N=18, Captions Group -CG-) or without (N=19, Non-Captions Group -NCG-). Assessment of word form recall, meaning recognition and meaning recall of 20 target words (non-cognates) was carried out immediately after the viewing and content comprehension was also tested. Aptitude and working memory tests were administered as measures of individual differences to control for their possible effects. Results showed that both groups were able to follow the plot to a large extent, independently of participants' aptitude and working memory scores. Vocabulary scores were higher for the CG, and differences were significant in the case of meaning recall (M=2,1, SD=1,77 vs. M=1, SD=3,22 respectively; U=258, z=2,371, p=.022), the most challenging of the three lexical dimensions tested. Word frequency was found to have an impact on meaning recognition in both groups, as well as on meaning recall in the NCG. Findings also evidence the potential TV series may have for language learning since initial exposure to a new language.


Gullberg, M., Roberts, L., Dimroth, C., Veroude, K., & Indefrey, P. (2010). Adult language learning after minimal exposure to an unknown natural language. Language Learning, 60(SUPPL. 2), 5-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00598.x.
Gullberg, M., Roberts, L., & Dimroth, C. (2012). What word-level knowledge can adult learners acquire after minimal exposure to a new language? IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 50(4), 239-276. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2012-0010
Liao, S., Kruger, J.-L., & Doherty, S. (2020). The impact of monolingual and bilingual subtitles on visual attention, cognitive load, and comprehension. The Journal of Specialised Translation, 33.
Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia learning (second edition). Cambridge University Press.
Miralpeix, I., Gesa, F., & Suárez, M. (2023). Vocabulary learning after minimal exposure to subtitled input: The role of aptitude. In B.Reynolds (Ed.), Vocabulary learning in the wild. New York: Palgrave.
Muñoz, C. (2022). Audiovisual input in L2 learning. LIA : Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 13(1), 125-143. https://doi.org/10.1075/lia.22001.mun
Vanderplank, R. (2016). Captioned media in foreign language learning and teaching: Subtitles for the deaf and hard-of-hearing as tools for language learning. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

"More media, more access, more participation? Perceptions and practices of Portuguese young people on media and participation"

Sara Pereira, Daniel Brandão

Participation has been advocated as a fundamental citizenship skill, essential to guarantee and deepen democracy. With regard to children and young people, the need and importance of giving them a voice has been emphasized by research, but also by social, political and educational actors and institutions. The participation of children in matters that concern them has been enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child since its approval by the UN in 1989. This Convention opens up a new vision and a new representation about the child, with a set of participation rights being established alongside those focusing on the protection and provision. Since then, children's participation has been valued and considered by various actors and contexts but the situation varies greatly from country to country. In Portugal, perhaps with the exception of youth activism on climate change, which in any case was fostered by a global movement, the levels of online and offline participation of young people are very low.

With a range of digital media and opportunities for action and participation available to children and young people today, will they continue to be mostly observers and consumers? Have digital media changed their participation practices? What does participation mean to them? And what types of participation do they exercise in their daily lives?

These are some of the questions we intend to present and discuss at the conference #YouthMediaLife2024. The data to be presented is based on 59 focus groups conducted with a sample of 390 children and young people aged from 11 to 18 years old. Once transcribed, the focus groups were analysed using MAXQDA. A first exploration of the data allows us to understand that the media are largely absent in their responses on perceptions and practices about participation. Despite spending a very significant number of hours on the Internet and social networks, they use very little digital means to mobilize around problems and causes. The media are mainly used to entertain and chat with friends, they are not seen as means or tools of expression and participation in society.

This study is part of the research project "bYou: study of the experiences and expressions of children and young people about the media" (PTDC/COM-OUT/3004/2020) funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

""Video Games Do Exclude Us": Female Gamers in Young Adult Fiction"

Clara Plieth

At least since Gamer Gate, the public has become aware of the hostilities many female gamers face online and offline: they are frequently insulted, harassed, and threatened, not seldom with death or rape. Torill Elvira Mortensen suggests that the (frequently white) male gamergaters "often speak about themselves as undesirable and express the opinion that if games change, they will lose the only thing that holds value to them. They see women gaining benefits in 'their' field and attack the targets closest to them, the ones they can reach" (2018, p.799). Henry Jenkins (2008, p.23) further attests to not only a gendered but also a racialised and classed participation gap when it comes to gaming. Consequently, Shira Chess considers the "white geeky guy [as] idealized (and monetized) in popular culture ... . Culturally and capitalistically, he is Player One" (2017, p.8). She then proposes that the female gamer is Player Two, "a theoretical player-a fictionalized construction of the video game industry. She is a ghost, a shadow. ... But she is also powerful ... rapidly changing the market" (p.6).

Following on from Chess's concept, this paper will investigate the depictions of and hostilities faced by several Player Twos in young adult fiction. Particularly, I will investigate Ernest Clines's Ready Player One (2011), Brigid Kemmerer's More Than We Can Tell (2018), and Brittany Morris' Slay (2020) in which the enthusiastic gamers Helen, Emma, and Kiera face an exclusive gaming space in which they must assert and defend themselves. Moreover, Helen and Kiera face multiple discrimination, being not only female but also Black. I will outline how the novels portray the female gamers as excluded and harassed within gaming culture and how (if) they ultimately seek to encourage female gamers and foster resilience in the male-dominated space.

Chess, S. (2017). Ready player two: Women gamers and designed identity. University of Minnesota Press.
Cline, E. (2011). Ready Player One. Crown.
Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide (updated). New York University Press.
Kemmerer, B. (2018). More than we can tell. Bloomsbury.
Morris, B. (2020). Slay. Simon Pulse.
Mortensen, T. E. (2018). Anger, Fear, and Games: The Long Event of #GamerGate. Games and Culture, 13(8), 787-806. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555412016640408

"Geschichte spielen. Digitale Spiele aus geschichtsdidaktischer Perspektive"

Lorenz Prager

Dieser Beitrag möchte anhand der Vorstellung eines Promotionsprojekts eine geschichtsdidaktische Perspektive auf digitale Spiele aufzeigen, um so als Stein des Anstoßes für die Beschäftigung anderer Disziplinen bzw. Fachdidaktiken mit digitalen Spielen zu fungieren.

Digitale Spiele sind fest im medialen Nutzungsverhalten von Jugendlichen verankert. Laut der JIM-Studie aus dem Jahr 2022 spielen 76 % der 12- bis 19-Jährigen täglich oder mehrmals pro Woche. Daraus lässt sich schließen, dass digitale Spiele teil der Lebenswelten von Jugendlichen sind. Folgt man gängigen Theoremen ob nun unterschiedlichen Diskurstheorien oder Niklas Luhmanns Kommunikationstheorie, so tragen Massenmedien zur Identitätsbildung und der Konstruktion von Weltbildern bei. Ian Bogost vertritt in Bezug auf Spiele das Konzept der „procedural rhetorics”, demnach die Vorstellungen, Einstellungen und Weltbilder, die hinter der Spielmechanik, d.h. den Regeln eines Spieles, liegen über die Tätigkeit des Spielens vermittelt werden.

Handelt es sich bei diesen Spielen um historisierende digitale Spiele, so lässt sich aus geschichtsdidaktischer Perspektive konstatieren, dass der Umgang mit Geschichte in der Gesellschaft, sprich Geschichtskultur(en), das individuelle Geschichtsbewusstsein prägt. Anders ausgedrückt bei digitalen Spielen handelt es sich um Sinnbildungs- beziehungsweise Deutungsangebote die von den Spielenden in unterschiedlichen Formen wahrgenommen und oder angenommen werden können.

Daraus erwächst die Notwendigkeit digitale Spiele zum Forschungsgegenstand der Geschichtsdidaktik zu machen. Hierbei gilt es sie sowohl als geschichtskulturelle Produkte zu analysieren, als auch ihre Rezeption durch Jugendlich zu beforschen. Aus den so generierten Befunden können bestenfalls Lehr-Lern-Settings entwickelt werden, die historisierende digitale Spiele zum Lerngegenstand machen und so bei den Lernenden neben historischen Kompetenzen auch Medienkompetenz im Allgemeinen Sinn fördern.

Das vorgestellte Promotionsprojekt fragt im Rahmen einer kritischen Diskursanalyse danach welche Beiträge bestimmte digitale Spiele, die den Zweiten Weltkrieg als Rahmenhandlung nutzen, zum Diskurs über die Verbrechen des NS-Regimes und den Zweiten Weltkrieg liefern. Dazu wird ein Korpus aus zwölf Spielen die den Genres Strategiespiel und Ego-Shooter zuzuordnen und zwischen den Jahren 2000 und 2021 erscheinen sind analysiert. Teil der kritischen Diskursanalyse ist das Aufzeigen von Interventionsmöglichkeiten nach der eigentlichen Analyse. Dies soll in Form von Lehr-Lern- Settings für den schulischen und universitären Bereich geschehen.

Ausgewählte Literatur
Michel Foucault, Archäologie des Wissens (Frankfurt am Main 192020)
Judith Breitfuß, Thomas Hellmuth, Isabella Svacina-Schild, Diskursanalytische Schulbuchforschung. Beiträge zu einer kritischen Geschichsdidaktik (Frankfurt am Main 2021).
Siegfried Jäger, Kritische Diskursanalyse. Eine Einführung (Münster 2015).
Jürgen Link, Diskurs, Interdiskurs, Kollektivsymbolik (Zeitschrift für Diskursforschung 1/1, Augsburg 2013) 7-23. Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverbund Südwest, JIM-Studie 2022.Jugend Information, Medien (Stuttgart 2022).
Angela Schwarz. Geschichte im digitalen Spiel. Ein "interaktives Geschichtsbuch" zum Spielen, Erzählen, Lernen? In: Vadim Oswalt, Hans-Jürgen Pandel (Hg.), Handbuch Geschichtskultur im Unterricht (Frankfurt 2021) 565-612.
Tobias Bevc, Holger Zapf (Hg.), Wie wir spielen was wir werden. Computerspiele in unserer Gesellschaft (Konstanz 2009).

"The Language of Short-Form Self-help on Social Media"

Barbara Katharina Reschenhofer

This paper enquires into the language used in anglophone audio-visual content about mental health on popular social media sites. With the rise of social media, adolescents and young adults have become increasingly aware of various topics concerning mental health. Short-form content on apps like Instagram or Tiktok has proven to be particularly attractive to young viewers who rely on social media as a significant part of their peer-to-peer socialization. In this qualitative study of select online video content, high-ranking video clips on mental health topics are critically analyzed in two major ways: Firstly, the video clips' metadata (hashtags, captions) are examined for commonly co-occurring keywords and hashtag families. Secondly, the language used in the selected video clips proper is explored. Here, spoken language as well as animated text overlays are transcribed to then identity popular strategies deployed in online conversations surrounding mental health. In doing so, this paper investigates in how far popular psychology has grown as a subgenre of social media video content and discusses the potential problematics of clips which encourage self-diagnosis without the consultation of mental health experts or the provision of research-based guidance.

Select tentative references
Abdelnour, Elie, Madeline O. Jansen, and Jessica A. Gold. "ADHD diagnostic trends: Increased recognition or overdiagnosis?" Science of Medicine 119:5 (2022): 467-473.
Kumar, Rahul, Shubhadeep Mukherjee, Tsan-Ming Choi, and Lalitha Dhamotharan. "Mining voices from self-expressed messages on social-media: Diagnostics of mental distress during COVID-19." Decision Support Systems 162 (2022): 1-13. htps://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2022.113792.
Vogel, Erin A., Rose Jason P., Lindsay R. Roberts, and Katheryn Eckles. "Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem." Psychology of Popular Media Culture 3.4 (2014): 206- 222. htps://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000047.

"Beyond Fairy Tales: Diversity Representation in The Bachelor Franchise"

Oleksandra Romaniuk

Each season The Bachelor tells a large contingent of its fanbase they are not worthy of the fairy tale or of being loved if they are over a certain size. People want to see themselves on screen so they can identify with the contestants and feel invested in their stories. Now is the time to expand upon the mirroring of a real American society, one that is not exclusively thin and majority white. Now is the time to start being inclusive of all bodies and all people, and not just on "night one".
Bachelor Diversity Campaign, 2022

For two decades, the American dating and relationship reality TV multimedia franchise The Bachelor has captivated audiences worldwide and sparked 37 international adaptations. However, its portrayal of fairytale love and romance has generated academic discussions related to how this franchise may shape young adults' perceptions of real-life romantic relationships (Ferris et al., 2007; Zurbriggen & Morgan, 2006). Moreover, the franchise's emphasis on specific beauty standards, stereotypical gender roles, and limited cultural diversity can lead to feelings of inadequacy and body dissatisfaction among young viewers who do not fit within the narrow scope of the show's "idealized scenarios". Specifically, The Bachelor "is a princess fantasy, built around the idea of a woman finding fulfillment by landing the perfect man, filtered through an upper-middle class, predominantly white lens" (Deggans, 2020). Accordingly, NAACP called for a boycott of The Bachelor due to its lack of representation of people of color (NAACP, 2017). Similarly, GLAAD criticized the franchise for its failure to include LGBTQ+ individuals, which sends a message that their romantic relationships are not worthy of mainstream representation (GLAAD, 2021).

The study incorporates social media analytics aimed at unveiling The Bachelor Nation fans' attitudes related to gender roles, beauty standards, and cultural diversity on social media platforms. Specifically, social media listening tools capture a wide range of comments, including demographics, sentiment, and engagement metrics. Two specific campaigns, "40 seasons. 18 years. 1 Black lead" and "Roses are for every BODY" (Bachelor Diversity Campaigns, 2020, 2022), focused on anti-racism and body diversity, respectively, are also included in the analysis. Drawing upon qualitative and quantitative analyses, the study examines the dynamics of diversity representation in the franchise's casting choices as well as explores any patterns or trends that may emerge. The findings promote critical media literacy and advocate for diverse and inclusive narratives in popular media, fostering a more informed understanding of media influence in the realm of love and romance.

Bachelor Diversity Campaign. (2020). 40 Seasons. 18 Years. 1 Black Lead. A campaign for anti-racism in the Bachelor franchise. Change.org. Retrieved February 21, 2023, from https://www.change.org/p/abc-a-campaign-for-anti-racism-in-the-bachelor- franchise
Bachelor Diversity Campaign. (2022). Roses are for every BODY. A campaign for body diversity in the Bachelor franchise. Change.org. Retrieved February 21, 2023, from https://www.change.org/p/a-campaign-for-body-diversity-in-the-bachelor-franchise
Deggans, E. (2020, June, 12). Dismantling 'The Bachelor's' Racist and Sexist Elements Has Only Just Begun. Retrieved February 21, 2023, from https://www.npr.org/2020/06/12/876117467/dismantling-the-bachelors-racist-and-sexist-elements-has-only-just- begun
Ferris, A. L., Smith, S. W., Greenberg, B. S., & Smith, S. L. (2007). The content of reality dating shows and viewer perceptions of dating. Journal of Communication, 57(3), 490-510. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00354.x
GLAAD. (2021, February 12). Dating Shows Need to Be More LGBTQ-Inclusive. Retrieved February 21, 2023, from https://www.glaad.org/blog/dating-shows-need-be-more-lgbtq-inclusive
NAACP. (2017, January 24). NAACP calls for boycott of "The Bachelor" until diversity and equal opportunity measures are put in place. Retrieved from https://www.naacp.org/latest/naacp-calls-for-boycott-of-the-bachelor-until-diversity-and-equal-opportunity- measures-are-put-in-place/
Zurbriggen, E. L., & Morgan, E. M. (2006). Who wants to marry a millionaire? Reality dating television programs, attitudes toward sex, and sexual behaviors. Sex Roles, 54(1-2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-8865-2

"'English as a means of connection': An exploration into the effects of online video games on Japanese secondary student’s English language ideology"

Koichi Saito

With the acceleration of globalisation, people have more opportunities to communicate with those from different lingua-cultural backgrounds, using English as a lingua franca (henceforth ELF) (e.g., Jenkins, 2015; Seidlhofer, 2011; Widdowson, 2015). Nevertheless, several studies have revealed that Japanese English users are reluctant to communicate with others in English, or rather ELF, lest they make mistakes (e.g., Murata, 2016; Murata & Iino, 2018); an ideology which can cause difficulties in our current internationalised world. To date, research in this area has focused mainly on the pedagogical implications of ELF, particularly the importance of face-to-face communication (e.g., Iino & Murata, 2016; Nogami, 2020; Virkkula & Nikula, 2010).

Considering the above, the present research discusses how playing online video games with individuals from other countries influences people's English language use ideology. The focus of this study is a Japanese secondary school student who occasionally uses English while playing online video games. The data was collected through unstructured individual interviews and analysed by employing a narrative inquiry so as to understand the development of the participant's English language use ideology (Miyahara, 2021). In addition, video recordings made while the participant was playing online video games shall be introduced when necessary in order to triangulate the findings from the analysis of the interview data. This research illustrates 1) how online video games help the participant become aware of the current role of English in the world and 2) how the participant exploits his linguistic resources in a creative manner in order to achieve shared goals with his online teammates.

Whereas previous research focused mainly on face-to-face interactions, the present study aims to expand the scope of discussion and add valuable insights to the field of applied linguistics by exploring the pedagogical effects of online communication on people's English language use ideology. In addition, it sheds light on new pedagogical implications of online video games with regard to English language use ideology; in contrast to previous studies that primarily investigated the effect of online video games on vocabulary expansion in the field of foreign language acquisition (Butler, 2021).

Butler, G. Y. (2021). Children transforming in the digital age: Current and future of learning and language abilities (Japanese). Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
Iino, M., & Murata, K. (2016). Dynamics of ELF communication in an English-medium academic context in Japan: From EFL learners to ELF users. In K. Murata (ed.), Exploring ELF in Japanese academic and business contexts: Conceptualization, research and pedagogical implications (pp. 111-131). Routledge.
Jenkins, J. (2015). Global Englishes: A resource book for students (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Miyahara, M. (2021). 'Place-reflexivity' as an imaginary kaleidoscope in Japan and East Asia. In K. Murata (ed.), ELF research methods and approaches to data analysis: Theoretical and methodological underpinnings (pp. 221-240). Routledge.
Murata, K. (2016). ELF research - Its impact on language education in Japan and East Asia. In M.-L. Pitzl & R. Osimk-Teasdale (Eds.), English as a lingua franca: Perspectives and prospects (pp. 77-86). De Gruyter.
Murata, K., & Iino, M. (2018). EMI in higher education. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English as a lingua franca (pp. 400- 412). Routledge.
Nogami, Y. (2020). Identity and pragmatic language use: A study on Japanese ELF users. De Gruyter Mouton.
Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford University Press.
Virkkula, T., & Nikula, T. (2010). Identity construction in ELF contexts: A case study of Finnish engineering students working in Germany. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 20(2), 251-273.
Widdowson, H. G. (2015). ELF and the pragmatics of language variation. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 4(2), 359-372.

"Countering the 'parallel society' – narrative: Homemaking and citizenship practices of young adults living in stigmatized neighbourhoods in Denmark"

Hannah Sattlecker

For the past decade, Denmark has established various 'Ghetto Laws', which target neighbourhoods in Denmark that are categorized as problematic due to different criteria (e.g., unemployment, criminality, low education etc.). In this context, the term 'parallel society' has been used to paint a picture of those problematized neighbourhoods and to describe the effects of 'ghetto'-formations: so-called 'non-western' residents forming closed-off groups and not engaging with Danish common values, which is seen as leading to problematic behaviour and excluding oneself from society (Regeringen, 2018).

The dominance of this narrative in Danish politics and media around the topic of integration and concretely in the context of the 'ghetto-law' has significantly influenced the (digital) media coverage as well as the political rhetoric and policies related to those neighbourhoods, framing and conceptualizing the targeted areas as heavily fraught with problems (Seemann, 2021; Jensen & Söderberg, 2022; Risager, 2022). At the same time, as research has shown, socioeconomic conditions in many of the targeted neighborhoods have significantly improved in recent years (Risager, 2022). Despite these positive changes, the apparent 'threat' of the 'parallel society' and the necessity to eliminate it, has been emphasized even more than before through the new law.

With this background in mind, this project aims to shift the focus from the predominance of political and media discourse to the views of the different residents of those neighborhoods, focusing on Gen Z and Millennials. It asks the question, how the image portrayed through the 'parallel society'- narrative fits together with the perception and experience of those residents growing up and living in those neighborhoods. Specifically, it looks at the different ways the dominant political narrative of the 'parallel society' is countered and resisted by the residents. The results of the project show that the interviewee's stories of their lifeworlds and realities within and outside of the neighborhood counter the idea of a 'parallel society' and bring (new and differing) stories of citizenship, community, and home to the forefront.
Methodologically, the thesis uses qualitative semi-structured interviews as the primary method as well as photo elicitation to support the interviews (Boucher, 2018). The interviews and photos are analysed through counter-narrative analysis (Müller & Frandsen, 2020).

Boucher Michael Lee. (2018). Participant Empowerment Through Photo-elicitation. Ethnographic Education Research New Perspectives and Approaches (1st ed. 2018.). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64413-4
Jensen, T. G., & Söderberg, R. (2022). Governing urban diversity through myths of national sameness - a comparative analysis of Denmark and Sweden. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 11(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOE-06-2021-0034
Müller, M., & Frandsen, S. (2020). Counter-narratives as analytical strategies. Methodological implications. In: Lundholt, K. L., Marianne Wolff (Ed.). Routledge Handbook of Counter-Narratives. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429279713
Regeringen (2018) Ét Danmark uden parallelsamfund. Ingen ghettoer i 2030. Available at: publikation_ét-danmark-uden-parallelsamfund.pdf (regeringen.dk) (accessed 07 August 2023).
Risager, B. S. (2022). Territorial stigmatization and housing commodification under racial neoliberalism: The case of Denmark's 'ghettos.' Environment and Planning A, 55(4), 850-870. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518x221141427
Seemann, A. (2021). The Danish 'ghetto initiatives' and the changing nature of social citizenship, 2004-2018. Critical Social Policy, 41(4), 586-605. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261018320978504

"Breaking Frames - Digitale Bildarchive als Handlungsfelder zur Vermittlung von Kunst(geschichte) am Puls der Zeit"

Eva-Maria Schitter, Petra Weixelbraun

Digitale Bildarchive der Bildenden Kunst sind im Unterrichtsalltag zumeist lediglich Mittel zum Zweck. Selten steht der digitale Raum, in dem künstlerisches und kunstgeschichtliches Bildmaterial konsumiert wird, selbst im Zentrum der Auseinandersetzung. Jedoch dienen digitalisierte Bestände längst nicht mehr nur der Dokumentation und Aufbewahrung, sondern nehmen eine wesentliche Funktion in der öffentlich zugänglichen Kunstvermittlung am Bild ein. Digitale Bildarchive sind aber - so die These - im Kontext experimenteller Lernerfahrung rund um Kunst viel mehr als bloß Vehikel zur Lehre von historischem Faktenwissen.
Ausgehend von Spivaks Konzept des Unlearnings ergeben sich folgende Fragestellungen: Wie können wir im Umgang mit digitalen Bildarchiven eine Sensibilität für Leerstellen in der kanonischen Bildsprache der Kunst und ihrer Geschichte schaffen? Wie können wir im Rahmen der (Kunst-)Vermittlung dazu beitragen, die habitualisierten und erlernten Machthierarchien aufzubrechen und eine antidiskriminierende und machtkritische Zukunft der Kunst(-geschichte) zu konzipieren?
Der Forschungsschwerpunkt Kunstpädagogik im Projekt „image+ Platform for Open Art Education” versucht diese Fragen aufzuarbeiten und sie zusammen mit Studierenden des Lehramtfaches Kunst und Design und ausgebildeten Kunstvermittler*innen in digitale Bildarchive didaktisch mit Gamification-Elementen einzubetten. Daraus entwickelten sich in mehreren Workshops spielerische Vermittlungskonzepte und Methoden, deren Ziel es ist, gemeinschaftliche Handlungsfelder im Kontext der genannten Fragestellungen zu bieten und für das post-digitale Zeitalter relevante Kompetenzen rund um Bildpluralismus anzubahnen.

Dieser Vortrag spannt einen Bogen von der Auseinandersetzung mit medienpädagogischen und machtkritischen, theoretischen Fragestellungen zu praktischen, gemeinsam erprobten Strategien, die dazu ermutigen, das digitale Bildarchiv als spielerischen Lernort zu benutzen und eröffnet einen Raum für zukunftsorientierte Qualifikationen, die im 21. Jahrhundert dringend benötigt werden.

"Young Learners' Encounters with English in Germany"

Pina Schmidt, Aleyna Melis Ermek

While working at a primary school in Germany, a seven-year-old Romanian boy caught our interest by speaking fluent English. "How did you learn English so well?", we asked him. "Because I watch Youtubers who are from England like PrestonPlayz.", he answered. This anecdote suggests that in Germany young learners increasingly encounter English in various digital contexts outside the classroom, described as the "digital wilds" by Sauro & Zourou (2017).

The Germany-based 2020 KIM study on childhood, the internet, and media indicates that primary school students are increasingly moving independently on social media platforms such as YouTube and TikTok (MPFS 2020: 24). By implication, today's primary school-aged children are global citizens like no generation before them (Lohmann 2020: 13). This increasing availability and relevance of foreign languages online, especially English, is worth examining (MPFS 2020: 24). Combined with our observations, there is a need to acknowledge young learners' de facto access and usage of the "digital wilds" and, second, to take a systematic look at how these young learners cum users engage with English content in these contexts.

In the study for our master's thesis, we address this issue by exploring the digital and nondigital contexts in which young learners encounter English outside their classrooms, complemented by their teachers' views. Our sample comprises participants from two primary schools in North Rhine-Westphalia, one with more privileged students, the other with students from varying ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

To ensure child-friendly data collection, group interviews with five children were conducted following a guideline for ethical standards in research with children (Alderson 2014: 98-99). The following issues were covered: first and second language acquisition, extramural encounters with English, media usage, types of (language-based) activities, and motivation. The data was analyzed using a synthesis of qualitative content analysis and grounded theory. In addition, a teacher questionnaire was distributed after the interviews to gain insight into teachers' awareness of their students' extramural engagement with English and to highlight the potential gap between teacher beliefs and student realities. We will conclude by addressing considerations concerning implementing our research data into the classroom.

Alderson, P. (2014). Ethics. In A. Clark, R. Flewitt, M. Hammersley, & M. Robb (Eds.), Understanding research with children and young people (pp. 85-102). SAGE Publications.
Lohmann, C. (2020). Vorerfahrungen und Lebenswelten der Grundschulkinder. In H. Böttger (Ed.), Didaktik für die Grundschule. Englisch - Didaktik für die Grundschule (6th ed., pp. 12-22). Cornelsen.
MPFS Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverbund Südwest. (2021). KIM 2020: Kindheit, Internet, Medien. Basisuntersuchung zum Medienumgang 6- bis 13-Jähriger in Deutschland. Landesanstalt für Kommunikation. https://www.mpfs.de/fileadmin/files/Studien/KIM/2020/KIM-Studie2020_WEB_final.pdf
Sauro, S., & Zourou, K. (2017). Call for papers. Language Learning & Technology, 21(1), 186. https://doi.org/10125/44603

"From idol casting shows to online censorship: social media, youth and the construction of national(ist) identities in the P.R. China"

Michaela Schober

In the P.R. China, Internet and social media usage has sky-rocketed in the last ten to fifteen years, a time marked by rapid and comprehensive societal as well as political changes. The Internet in the P.R. China has never been a paragon of tightly knit privacy laws nor of technological protections for individual privacy. Still, the degree to which Internet use - and the individual - can be and is monitored now is unprecedented, much like e.g. the level of surveillance relying on facial recognition in everyday life (cf. Freedom House).

Online spaces and the democratic potential of a connected world initially gave rise to the possibility that the P.R. China might be on the way to a more liberal worldview, perhaps also with social media as a catalyst for societal and political protest and change, much like in the 'Jasmine Revolution' in North Africa (Clark 2012: 195 ff.). However, the ever-tighter net of online censorship, recent crackdowns on the entertainment industry, and the general turn to nationalist, conservative values under Xi Jinping's leadership since 2012, have rather turned those assumptions upside down. According to policy makers (cf. Chen et al., 2016), the crackdown on the entertainment industry in 2021 and the introduction of stricter Internet policies (cf. Secretariat of the Cyberspace Administration of China, 2021), was, in part, to protect children and youths from "bad influence on the young and for 'severely polluting the social atmosphere'" (Crossley, 2021). This also includes other 'harmful' and 'reprehensible' content, such as 'immoral lifestyles', wasteful spending and pornography.

Taking official statements and policy documents as a starting point, this paper first seeks to trace and understand the development of China's new media policies and their connection to the 'protection' and children and youths. A qualitative analysis of selected posts on Chinese social media platforms such as Weibo (the equivalent to X, formerly Twitter) will then highlight the role social media and fandom spaces play in the construction of new, nationalist narratives and identities that appear to be primarily addressed to teenagers and young adults (cf. Luo & Li, 2022; Romano, 2022; Zemanek, 2014). Finally, these findings will be discussed in terms of "media citizenship" (Stockmann 2012: 222) and brought into dialogue with the drastic increase of online censorship (and thereby the decrease of privacy and freedom of expression).

Clark, Paul. Youth Culture in China: From Red Guards to Netizens. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 2012. doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139061162.
Chen, Qiang, Xiaolin Xu, Bolin Cao, and Wei Zhang. 'Social Media Policies as Responses for Social Media Affordances: The Case of China'. Government Information Quarterly 33, no. 2 (April 2016): 313-24. doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2016.04.008.
Crossley, Gabriel. 'China Cracks down on Showbiz for "polluting" Society and Youth'. Reuters, 2 September 2021, sec. China. https://www.reuters.com/world/china/china-radio-tv-body-strengthen-regulation-cultural-programmes-salaries-2021-09-02/.
Freedom House. 'China: Freedom on the Net 2021 Country Report'. Accessed 31 July 2023. freedomhouse.org/country/china/freedom-net/2021.
Luo, Zhifan, and Muyang Li. 'Participatory Censorship: How Online Fandom Community Facilitates Authoritarian Rule'. New Media & Society, 19 August 2022, 14614448221113924. doi.org/10.1177/14614448221113923.
Repnikova, Maria. Media Politics in China: Improvising Power under Authoritarianism. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 2017. doi.org/10.1017/9781108164474.
Romano, Aja. 'Xi Jinping vs Fandom', 17 October 2022. Vox. https://www.vox.com/culture/23404571/china-vs-fandom-danmei-censorship-qinglang-social-media.
Secretariat of the Cyberspace Administration of China (中央网信办秘书局 zhōngyāng wǎng xìn bàn mìshū jú ). '关于进一步加强"饭圈"乱象治理的通知-中共中央网络安全和信息化委员会办公室' (Guānyú jìnyībù jiāqiáng "fàn quān" luàn xiàng zhìlǐ de tōngzhī-zhōnggòng zhōngyāng wǎngluò ānquán hé xìnxī huà wěiyuánhuì bàngōngshì, 'Notice on Further Strengthening the Governance of Chaos in the "Fan Circle"-Office of the Cyber Security and Informatization Commission of the CPC Central Committee'), 25 August 2021. Accessed 31 July 2023. http://www.cac.gov.cn/2021-08/26/c_1631563902354584.htm.
Stockmann, Daniela. Media Commercialization and Authoritarian Rule in China. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 2012. doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139087742.
Zemanek, Adina, ed. Media in China, China in the Media: Processes, Strategies, Images, Identities. First edition. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press, 2014.

"Banking on Time: Game-Credit, Coins and Crypto. On the Role of Virtual Currencies in Gamic Fiction and in Young People's Lives Today"

Dorothea Rebecca Schönsee

Virtual currencies form an integral part of game cultures today. They are also central topic in contemporary fiction, which critically engages with the evolving relationship between gaming culture, economies of speculation and virtual currencies. By comparing Thomas Pynchon's Bleeding Edge (2013) with gamic fiction like Cory Doctorow's For the Win (2010) and Neal Stephenson's Reamde (2011), this talk analyzes their different narrative takes on the challenging interrelationship of game culture and the politics of money.

Methodologically, the investigation uses a transdisciplinary approach: it draws on discussions of "didactic elements" in "gamic fiction" (Jupin, Jenkins, Stark), on socio-economic accounts of the contemporary "financial regimes" and "imagined futures" (Vogl, Appadurai, Beckert), as well as on Paul Ricœur's theory of Time and Narrative to examine how "gaming capital" and crypto feature in the chosen texts. The main assumption is, that all three novels render interesting perspectives on the flow zones of games and capitalist markets in tracing the role of 'virtual credit' as functions of time in today's game culture: they initiate, albeit differently, active processes of configuration by involving the reader's engagement with the temporal framework of financial markets.

While highlighting the potential hazards of "banking on time" via microtransactions (as for example in For the Win), they predominantly show the multifold potential of game cultures in terms of social play, agency, and resilience (Jagoda, Isbister): For example, in Pynchon's Bleeding Edge the young adults form 'communities of time' delving into the nostalgic counter-worlds of their video-games while the shadow of 9/11 hovers over the novel. The terrible events converge with the financial crash of the dot-com bubble. Like their fellows in Stephenson's and Doctorow's texts, they challenge the "ruins of the future" they witness: In For the Win the gamers collude to organize against what Doctorow calls 'Chokepoint Capitalism.' Reamde takes on the challenges of moving money across national and virtual boundaries, using creative intervention to enable a new sort of solidarity. Against this backdrop the talk asks: In which ways does game culture and its depiction in contemporary fiction translate into monetary literacy and which roles do the multifaced worlds of gaming play in young people's lives today? Finally: Which aspects of future money have these novels written into existence?

Appadurai, Arjun: "The Ghost in the Machine", Public Culture, vol. 23, no. 3, 2011,. 517-539.
Appadurai, Arjun: Banking on Words: The Failure of Language in the Age of Derivative Finance. University of Chicago Press. 2016.
Beckert, Jens. Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations and Capitalist Dynamics. Cambridge, Harvard University Press 2016.
Consalvo, Mia. Cheating: Gaining Advantage in Videogames, MIT Press 2007.
Giblin, Rebecca and Doctorow Cory: Chokepoint Capitalism. How Big Tech and Big Content Captured Creative Labor Markets and How We'll Win them Back. Beacon Press, 2022.
Isbister, Katherine: How Games Move Us. Emotions by Design. MIT 2017.
Jagoda, Patrick. Experimental Games: Critique, Play, and Design in the Age of Gamification. University of Chicago Press 2020.
Jenkins, Henry. Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture. Media Education for the 21st Century. MIT Press, 2009.
Jupin, Tanner J. Gamic Fiction: The Intermediation of Literature and Games. University of California, 2014. Dissertation.
Knorr-Cetina and Alex Presa: "The Temporalization of Financial Markets: From Network to Flow." Theory, Culture & Society, vol. 27, no. 7-8, 2007,116-138.
Knorr-Cetina, Karin and Urs Buregger. "Global Microstructures: The Virtual Societies of Financial Markets." American Journal of Sociology, vol 107, no. 4, 2002, 905-50.
Marsh, Nicky: Credit Culture: The Politics of Money in the American Novel of the 1970s. Cambridge University Press, 2020.
Ricœurs, Paul. Time and Narrativity, volumes 1,3. Trans, Kathleen Blamey and David Pellauer (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1984-1989).
Shonkwiler, Allison. The Financial Imaginary. Economic Mystification and the Limits of Realist Fiction. 2017.
Stark, Douglas. Ludic Literature: Ready Player One as Didactic Fiction for the Neoliberal Subject.
Vogl, Joseph. "The Financial Regime." Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 29, no. 60 (2020): 175-82. doi.org/10.7146/nja.v29i60.122847.
Vogl, Joseph. The Specter of Capital. 2010 Transl. by Joachim Redner and Robert Savage. Stanford UP, 2014.

""Content, der sich in meinem Herzen gut anfühlt" Visuelle Vertrauenspraktiken in den sozialen Medien"

Maria Schreiber, Andrea Schaffar, Marius Liedtke

Das mangelnde Vertrauen in Institutionen wie Regierungen, Medien oder Gesundheitssysteme wird aktuell immer wieder für soziale, kulturelle und politische Probleme europäischer Gesellschaften verantwortlich gemacht. Zwar untersuchen Wissenschaftler:innen unterschiedlicher Disziplinen die Beziehung zwischen Vertrauen, Technologie und Desinformationen, oft wird jedoch außer Acht gelassen, wie Vertrauen eigentlich im Alltag und in konkreten Medienpraktiken hergestellt und gelebt wird.

Gerade die Pandemie hat gezeigt, dass visuelle digitale Repräsentationen individueller Gesundheit (Recovery-Selfies, Schrittzähler) und kollektiver Gesundheit (Bilder aus Bergamo, Visualisierungen von Infektionsraten) immer zentraler für unser Leben werden. Alltägliche, visuelle Kommunikation auf Social Media zu Themen der Gesundheit und des persönlichen Wohlbefindens bieten daher ein spannendes Feld, um visuelles Vertrauen als Teilaspekt visueller Kompetenz besser zu verstehen.

Auf stark visuellen Plattformen wie Instagram oder Tiktok finden sich rund um (mentale) Gesundheit sehr unterschiedliche Akteur:innen, Inhalte, Formate und Positionen in den Feeds der User:innen: auf das Kochrezept-Video der veganen Food-Bloggerin kann ein Beitrag eines öffentlich-rechtlichen Mediums über den Mangel an Psychotherapieplätzen folgen, ein Infoposting über Endometriose und ein Video über die Morgenroutine eines Sport Fitness-Influencers.

Wie orientieren sich junge User:innen in diesem komplexen Feld, welche visuellen Inhalte und Akteure werden als wie glaubwürdig, vertrauenswürdig und/oder authentisch angesehen und warum? Welche Rolle spielen dabei Communities, technische Strukturen, institutionelle Autoritäten, etc.?

Diese Fragen widmen wir uns im vergleichenden europäischen Forschungsprojekt "Trust And Visuality: Everyday digital practices" (TRAVIS). Wir schlagen einen praxistheoretischen Ansatz vor, um zu rekonstruieren, welche Rolle Vertrauen in Bezug auf visuelle soziale Medien spielt. Wir untersuchen, wie Menschen Vertrauen in Bilder zum Thema Wohlbefinden und (mentale) Gesundheit aufbauen, erleben und ausdrücken. Der Fokus liegt dabei nicht auf etwaigen unabhängigen Variablen, die das Verhalten der Vertrauenden beeinflussen, sondern praxeologisch gedacht auf dem alltäglichen 'doing' von Vertrauen im Sinne eines Repertoires von habituellen Praktiken und Orientierungen. Um diesen nuancierten qualitativen Ansatz umzusetzen und visuelle digitale Vertrauenspraktiken in ihren alltäglichen Kontexten zu verstehen, untersuchen wir verschiedene Ebenen der visuellen Bedeutungsproduktion (Rezeption, Produkt, Produktion).

Vorgestellt werden die Ergebnisse der ersten Forschungsphase, die sich um die Rezipierenden dreht: Basierend auf der Analyse autoethnografischer Berichte von Studierenden untersuchen wir Vertrauenspraktiken mit dem Schwerpunkt darauf, wie junge Menschen Gesundheitsbilder wahrnehmen und mit ihnen interagieren. Gleichzeitig fungieren die Autoethnografien als pädagogisches Tool bzw. als Methode der Beobachtung und kritischen Reflexion von visueller Kompetenz.

Die Ergebnisse unserer Pilotstudie weisen auf die Relevanz von formalen und ästhetischen Vertrauensmerkmalen (wie transparente Quellenangaben oder professionelle visuelle Stile) hin, sowie auf die Bedeutung von Influencer:innen als Vermittler:innen und Kurator:innen von Nachrichten und "Lifestyle"-Inhalten über (psychische) Gesundheit. Algorithmen werden dabei von den User:innen durchaus als steuernde bzw. kuratierende Mechanismen wahrgenommen, welcher Content für sie wie (un)sichtbar gemacht wird, bleibt aber weitgehend blackboxed. Die Ergebnisse werden bis zur Tagung weiter ausgearbeitet und fundiert, schwerpunktmäßig werden die Ergebnisse des österreichischen Teilprojekts vorgestellt und um erste komparative Analysen mit anderen Ländern ergänzt.

"Reconstructing Identities, Home, and Belonging: Online Spaces, Youth Organisations, and Representations of South Asian Diasporic Youth"

Anindita Shome

The South Asian diaspora has emerged from the movements and settlements of South Asians in different host nations. This diaspora is unique in its diversities of cultures, communities, country of origin, skill sets, reasons for migration, language, religion, caste, gender, and so on. The South Asian diasporic youth occupy a crucial space in the diaspora. They construct subcultures that contest binaries of the east/west and modern/ethnic that are associated with the diaspora (Badruddoja, 2022). South Asian diasporic youth organisations are one of the ways through which biases and binaries are being challenged, along with an assertion of unique diasporic identities. These diasporic youth organisations navigate offline as well as online spaces. Online platforms are thriving spaces of contestations and deliberations against the narratives of exclusion in the host land. South Asian diasporic youth, who navigate virtual spaces, tend to assert their multiple identities through the online narratives.

This paper aims to analyse the representations of the South Asian diaspora youth in a two-fold manner- through the diaspora youth organizations and through the online presence of these organizations. This paper will utilise content analysis of the selected online content through the themes of gender identities, racial and ethnic identities, cultural practices, educational and skilling opportunities. An intersectional approach would be at the basis of this entire study, as diasporic identities and subjectivities cannot be understood without considering the intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, diaspora, age, and community in the adopted homeland. The selected diasporic organizations are: South Asian Youth Action (SAYA); South Asian Youth in Houston Unite (SAYHU); and Chicago Desi Youth Rising (CDYR).

This paper attempts to understand how these diasporic organizations act as spaces of contestations and belonging for the diasporic youth, and how- the online spaces occupied by these diasporic organizations- reconstruct the concepts of home, multiple belonging and identities through the emergence of a digital diaspora. The online data for this study would be selected from the official website and Twitter pages of the selected diasporic organisations. Qualitative content analysis of the selected virtual content would be the methodology used. The selected content would be restricted to the years 2017-2023, and the content would be selected from the online posts targeted for the skilled second-generation South Asian diasporic youth digital users. The online data would also be limited to not more than 25 Twitter posts across the selected organizations, and 10 blogposts from the official websites of the organizations, to enable an intensive, thematic analysis. The research question of the paper focuses on the spaces of convergence of the multiple South Asian diasporic youth identities in the United States, but each of the distinct South Asian diasporic community youth identities requires a further in-depth study and analysis. The paper intends to understand if the emerging digital diasporic youth spaces and the youth organisations can act as spaces of assertion and emergence of new diasporic youth identities for the South Asian diaspora in the US.

Badruddoja, Roksana. National (un)Belonging: Bengali American Women on Imagining and Contesting Culture and Identity. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 18 Jul. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004514577 Web.

"Social Media Ephemeral Stories: Human Rights, Young Nigerians and their Struggle Against Police Brutality"

Silas Udenze

On 3 October 2020, a 22 years young man, Joshua Ambrose, was shot by a team of the Nigerian Police Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) in Delta State, Nigeria, on the allegation that he was an Internet fraudster (Dambo et al., 2021). The shooting was captured in a video. The audio in the video states that the Police just shot and killed the owner of the Lexus SUV and zoomed off with his car (Agbo, 2021). The viral video generated outrage that condemned the victim's ordeal and reflected the long- standing frustration about police brutality in Nigeria. In a few days, the online agitation had transformed into vast decentralised street protests in major cities in the country, mainly organised through social media. Again, on 20 October 2020, the Police, in an attempt to disperse peaceful protesters, shot and killed untold persons at a popular protest site, Lekki Tollgate, Lagos, Nigeria (Uwalaka, 2022). Since 20 October 2020 to date, the movement has had two commemoration protest anniversaries. The movement has continued to construct memories across time, an area dominated by Western studies (Daphi & Zamponi, 2019). Researchers have explored the EndSARS movement from diverse angles; comparison to Black Lives Matter (Nwakanma, 2022; Wada, 2021); the influence of celebrities on the protest (Uwalaka, 2022; Ajaegbu et al., 2022), queer solidarity at the movement (Nwabunnia, 2021); young people, their social media use and #EndSARS protest (Abimbade et al., 2022; Dambo et al., 2021); feminist movement and #EndSARS (Nwakanma, 2022). Despite the burgeoning literature on EndSARS, the literature is devoid of studies from the ephemeral media perspective. Besides, I argue that considering the online feature of the movement, the current literature on EndSARS needs to include the novelty and methodological rigour of digital ethnography. Consequently, this study attempts to understand how protesters use Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram "Stories" (24-hour "Story") to construct a memory of the EndSARS Movement in Nigeria from 2020 until its anniversaries in 2021, 2022, and 2023. Preliminary findings indicate that the "Story" enables connective memory, constructs memetic resurrection, networked commemoration and digital narration of the EndSARS movement.

""Thank God for Tags": Fanfiction on AO3 as a Reading Paradigm"

Fabienne Silberstein-Bamford

Fanfiction is closely entangled with its technology (Hellekson & Busse 2006), both Web 2.0 features and specific website infrastructure. This is nowhere better exemplified than on the platform Archive of Our Own (AO3), which hosts roughly 11 million stories in thousands of fandoms. AO3 is currently the most popular fanfiction repository, precisely because of how it deals with this slew of data: an ingenious tagging system, combining free tagging with vocabulary control in a hybrid folksonomy (Goh et al. 2009; Johnson 2014). Tags are not only used for detailed classification purposes, but also contain humorous and idiosyncratic content (Gursoy et al 2018; Price & Robinson 2020). To be able to make sense of this, users develop a fluency in fanfiction-specific vernacular. In this paper, I argue that the nature of tagging on AO3 creates unique reading experiences and reading behaviours different from other fanfiction platforms, as well as from print fiction, harbouring much potential to illuminate digital literacy practices. My arguments draw upon empirical data from an online survey and semi-structured interviews with fanfiction authors aged 16-24.

To the outsider, fanfiction tags may look like spoilers. Yet, what seems like a flaw is an essential and appreciated feature: readers want to know in advance what they can expect. Participants described tags as a marketing and communication tool for writers, and a decision-making and self-censoring tool for readers. Users are well aware that this diverges from print fiction and would not want print books to include a similar tagging system, but rather describe them as two different reading paradigms they engage with for different reasons. On AO3, fanfiction becomes a mode of storytelling able to cater to very specific requirements thanks to its hypertextual metadata. Like browsing an extensive menu, fans navigate through the jungle of stories to find the ones meeting their exact tastes and desires, filtering out what they do not wish to see. Users can easily move within and across fandoms by following author, character, genre, or custom-made tags, making AO3 a unique ecosystem of highly connected reading.

Goh, Dion-Hoe Lian, Alton Chua, Chei Sian Lee, and Khasfariyati Razikin. 2009. Resource Discovery Through Social Tagging: A Classification and Content Analytic Approach. Online Information Review 33, 3 (June 2009), 568-83. doi.org/10.1108/14684520910969961.
Gursoy, Ayse, Karen Wickett, Melanie Feinberg. 2018. Understanding Tag Functions in a Moderated, User-Generated Metadata Ecosystem. Journal of Documentation 74, 3. 490-508. doi.org/10.1108/JD-09-2017-0134.
Hellekson, Karen and Kristina Busse. 2006. Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays. McFarland & Company. Jefferson, NC.
Johnson, Shannon Fay. 2014. Fan Fiction Metadata Creation and Utilisation Within Fan Fiction Archives: Three Primary Models. Transformative Works and Cultures 17. http://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2014.0578.
Price, Ludi and Lyn Robinson. 2020. Tag Analysis as a Tool for Investigating Information Behaviour: Comparing Fan-Tagging on Tumblr, Archive of Our Own and Etsy. Journal of Documentation 77, 2. 320-358. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-05-2020-0089.

"Instagram as a paradoxical space for sociolinguistic discourses of English as a lingua franca and a foreign language"

Aina Tanaka

This ethnographic study investigates the role of English on Instagram, focusing on the language practices and interview narratives of Japanese youths. The study addresses two sociological discussions of English that users of social network services (SNS) live by: English as a lingua franca (ELF), advocating for non-native speakers' ownership of English (Seidlhofer, 2011), and English as a foreign language (EFL), positioning Japanese students outside the conventional English-speaking community (Kachru, 1985). The investigation involves a five-month observation of the language practices of 16 Japanese young adults in their 20s on Instagram, applying transtextual analysis (Pennycook, 2007) of their online posts and interviews. The participants' online practices reveal their playful use of English as a communicative lingua franca, facilitating interactions and self-expression in front of their followers, including various languages and semiotic resources such as emojis and photographs (Li, 2018), showcasing ELF practices that allow them to use the language at their disposal. However, the interviews shed light on the underlying motivations for using English on Instagram, which were rooted in their perception of English as embodying "akogare" (aspiration), "luxury", and "fashionable" compared to Japanese. This suggests that English plays not only a linguistic but also an emblematic role in their Instagram posts (Blommaert, 2010; Pennycook, 2007). Furthermore, the participants expressed their strong orientation toward correct forms of English grammar, remaining constrained by the identity as English learners who have been studying the language through prescriptive examinations (Murata, 2020). For Japanese young adults, English on SNS serves both as ELF, a communicative lingua franca they adaptively exploit, and as EFL, possessing indexical meaning as a globally dominant language they use to embellish their posts and demonstrate grammatical competence. This research contributes valuable insights into the complex role of English as an internet lingua franca and how SNS users' online language practices are shaped by power and ideologies. By exploring the interplay of ELF and EFL identities in an online context, the study underscores the significance of critically examining the impact of English's symbolic capital on shaping the use of English as a lingua franca on SNS.

Blommaert, J. (2010). Sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge University Press.
Kachru, B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: the English language in the Outer Circle. In R, Quirk, & H, Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world. Cambridge University Press.
Li, Wei. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39, 261-261.
Murata, K. (2020). Bairingaru tagengo kankyo no naka deno (kyo tsu go to shite no) eigo wo baikai to shita kyoiku (MI/E)[English medium instruction/education in bi-/multilingual settings from an English as a lingua franca perspective]. Bogo Keishogo Bairingaru Kyoiku[The Research Journal of Mother Tongue, Heritage Language, and Bilingual Education], 16, 1-23.
Pennycook, A. (2007). Global Englishes and transcultural flows. Routledge.
Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford University Press.

"Slavic and other loanwords in multilingual identity construction among young people in German rap as a corpus and contact linguistics' approach for YouTube comments"

Aleksej Tikhonov

Multilingual diversity in German rap music has been marginalised in the public, scientific, and cultural mainstream since the 1990s (Caglar 1998). Nonetheless, rap has become a frequent topic of discussion in the media in the 2010s, mainly due to the genre's high streaming and chart statistics. Mainly two events contributed to the popularisation of multilingual Street rap - (1) The release of the single 'Chabos wissen wer der Babo ist' (2012) by the German-Kurdish-Turkish rapper Haftbefehl. The loanword Babo (boss) from Zazaki became the youth word of 2013 by the German dictionary publisher Langenscheidt. (2) 2019-2020, the German-Ukrainian-Russian rapper Capital Bra has drawn much attention to Street rap in Germany after making 13 number one chart hits in 12 months and becoming the most streamed musician of the 21 century in Germany and Austria.

This talk will explore the media practices of young people in the German rap scene and their impact on community and identity construction. Drawing on an analysis of YouTube comments under Street rap videos over the past decade, the talk will examine how young people use loanwords and personal designations from Slavic and other languages to construct hybrid identities that reflect their migration histories and experiences. It will also explore how rap lyrics in the 2010s and 2020s project the language of the streets and create new sociolects shaped by multilingual communication practices and the popularization of multilingual rap. Moreover, the talk will consider the role of media (music, videos, social media) and the street as places of socialization for young people in search of belonging to a group and having democratic participation in society. Finally, the talk will question the inclusiveness of these multilingual identity-constructing practices and examine the patterns of the new hybrid identities.

Caglar, Ayse S. 'Popular Culture, Marginality and Institutional Incorporation: German-Turkish Rap and Turkish Pop in Berlin'. Cultural Dynamics 10, no. 3 (1998): 243-61. https://doi.org/10.1177/092137409801000301.

"don't really care to share. A corpus analysis of students’ metadiscourse on social media and identity."

Eva Triebl

This study adopts a Critical Discourse Analytical approach (Wodak & Meyer 2016, KhosraviNik 2022) to examine how students of English represent themselves when reflecting on their social media practices in postings to a Moodle forum as part of an undergraduate seminar on digital discourse analysis held at the University of Vienna in three consecutive semesters (2022-2023). The data for this study are a corpus of 50 techno-linguistic biographies, that is, responses to a set of questions prompting students to briefly review their social media practices and participation (Page et al. 2022: 130). Assuming that identity is discursively construed in interaction, and that its linguistic enactment in digital settings is both shaped by, and constitutive of, users' perceptions of the interactional context they are writing into (Tagg, Seargeant & Brown 2017), this data allows insights into students' reflexive performance of the self in a situation marked by a particularly interesting configuration of contextual variables. The postings were written at the very beginning of the respective semester as an informal warm-up homework assignment and not initially declared part of a study. This was done based on the assumption that students, at this point, would have few preconceptions about the topic of digital discourse analysis. At the same time, though, students' perceptions of the assignment and, thus, their linguistic self-representation, are likely to have been shaped by the fact that they were writing for a university course. To identify how students linguistically manage this potential conflict in their self-representation, and if they do so in patterned ways, the data were annotated for parts of speech and semantic fields, and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with Wmatrix (Rayson 2008) and WordSmith 7.0 (Scott 2016). Results indicate a tendency for students to contrast, rather than identify themselves with, intensive social media use and linguistically mitigate the centrality of social media to their lives; on the other hand, the register of the postings was found to be highly specialized, indexing students' expertise with, and stylistic orientation towards, digitally mediated social life and technology.

KhosraviNik, Majid (2022). Digital meaning-making across content and practice in social media critical discourse studies. Critical Discourse Studies 19 (2): 119-123. doi.org/10.1080/17405904.2020.1835683
Rayson, Paul (2008). From key words to key semantic domains. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 13 (4): 519-549.
Ruth Page, David Barton, Johann Wolfgang Unger & Michele Zappavigna (2022). Researching Language and Social Media: A Student Guide. London: Routledge.
Scott, Mike (2016). WordSmith Tools Version 7. Stroud: Lexical Analysis Software.
Tagg, Caroline, Philip Seargeant & Amy Aisha Brown (2017). Online communication as context design. In: Tagg, Caroline, Philip Seargeant & Amy Aisha Brown. Taking Offence on Social Media: Conviviality and Communication on Facebook. Cham: Palgrave. 19-42.
Wodak, Ruth & Michael Meyer (eds.) (2016). Methods of Critical Discourse Studies. Introducing Qualitative Methods. 3rd Edition. Los Angeles: Sage.

"'Young Game Developers and Their Net Worth.' The imaginaire of bedroom programmers as neoliberal subjects"

Patryk Wasiak

My paper deconstructs the social imaginaire (Tayor 2003; James 2019) of young 'bedroom programmers' who became wealthy because of the successes of games they designed and programmed mostly singlehandedly. I specifically focus on the economic context of game programming as a media practice that fits in the lifeworlds of young people both as a job and a hobby. I argue that the social imaginaire of 'bedroom programmers' reproduced in gaming culture public discourse was structured upon the figure of a game designer as a neoliberal subject (Chandler & Reid 2016) who successfully makes an enterprise of his own life by investing in human capital. The most important element of this imaginaire is the blurring of the line between programming as a job and as a pleasurable free-time activity and passion (Goriunova 2014). This is one of the key elements of neoliberal discourse which presents entrepreneurship as a passion.

I discuss how programming computer games could be investigated as a media practice that fits into the life projects of young programmers. One of the key elements of the dominant social imaginaire of the game industry is that making games is a pleasurable hobby that can be highly profitable for those who succeed with their product. The blurred distinction between hobby and work can be illustrated by the widely used 'by gamers for gamers' game industry slogan. Game companies widely use this phrase in marketing strategies to demonstrate that game developers are gamers themselves and have an equal passion for the games they play and make.

Since the 1980s the media imagery of the industry includes a category of young gifted programmers who became wealthy in their teens. In contemporary internet culture, this narrative is shared in the 'Young Game Developers and Their Net Worth' text genre. My paper offers a longitudinal study of continuities and discontinuities of the social imaginary of affluent bedroom programmers from the 1980s to this day. Bedroom programmers share their narratives in personal stories of becoming neoliberal subjects in memoirs (Mechner 2012; Meier 2020), and interviews. My research is based on content analysis of articles about game developers and interviews with them in gaming magazines, television programs, memoirs of game developers, and books on game programming.

This paper communicates the research output of my ongoing five-year research project on programming culture and neoliberal order in the 1980s. My work is grounded in the conceptual framework that includes game studies (Swalwell 2021), software studies (Goriunova 2014), and cultural economics with the concepts of cognitive capitalism (Boutang 2011) and neoliberal subject (Chandler & Reid 2016).

Several recent works discuss contemporary labor struggles in the game industry. However, there are no works that provide the historical background for the work culture and the political economy of the industry. Particularly acute is the lack of studies that connect such macro-scale issues with the micro-scale perspective of young gamers' media practices. My paper enriches the scholarship of game studies by demonstrating how the emergence and transformation of gaming culture was situated in a wider socio-economic context of changing economic paradigms and accompanying shifts in social values. I also aim to provide an example of how the conceptual framework for researching media practices in gaming culture can be expanded by applying key concepts from these both fields to investigate the connection between the micro-scale level of writing game code to the macro-level of political economy.

Boutang, Y. Cognitive Capitalism, polity 2011.
Chandler, D., J. Reid, The Neoliberal Subject: Resilience, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Rowman & Littlefield 2016.
Goriunova, O., ed. Fun and Software. Exploring Pleasure, Paradox and Pain in Computing, Bloomsbury 2014.
James, P. "The Social Imaginary in Theory and Practice". In Chris Hudson and Erin K. Wilson (ed.). Revisiting the Global Imaginary: Theories, Ideologies, Subjectivities, Palgrave-McMillan 2019.
Mechner, J. The Making of Karateka. Journals 1982-1985, CreateSpace 2012.
Meier, S. Sid Meier's Memoir! A Life in Computer Games, WW Norton 2020.
Swalwell, M. Homebrew Gaming and the Beginnings of Vernacular Digitality, MIT Press 2021.
Taylor, C. Modern Social Imaginaries, Duke University Press 2003.

"Metapragmatic Analyses of the Young and old divide on Netizens' comments over Salmon Chaos"

Jennifer Wei

We adopt a rapport management model (RMM, Spencer-Oatey, 2008; Culpeper, 2011) guided metapragmatic analysis to explore the young and old divides on computer- mediated-communication (CMC) comments over Salmon Chaos in Taiwan. The two- day Facebook (FB) marketing scheme urging potential customers to change names to salmon-related homophones/homonyms attracted around 300 people to follow suit and gathered inter/national (social) media attention over who can change names under what circumstances. The proscribed salmon-related homophones and homonyms in name changing provoked the Chinese naming/name changing practice, in which the power relationships between the namers (usually parents or authorities like fortune tellers or elders) and the named (usually children) set strong expectations that aren't always spelled out. We argue that the allusiveness of authentic physical identity and the polylogal (rather than dyadic) nature of CMC have contributed to a shift from an interpersonal to an intergroup relational identification, resulting in physical anonymity as a cause of self-awareness and decreased inhibition. RMM can substantiate the social mediated group relational work by providing the needed group relational bases-face sensitivity, sociality rights and obligations, and interactional goals and orientations such as challenge, enhancement, and neglect over rapport management. As such, the presentation bridges the research gap by exploring the understudied data of unelicited readers' comments on CMC and investigating how the digital mediatized norms of appropriateness over naming and name-changing contribute to the "young" and "old" divide.

We adopt the software exportcomments.com to systematically extract comments from representative social media sites of Sushiro FB, Interior Ministry FB, and YouTube. Around 5,000 comments have been collected. We are interested in 1) how group relational practice is manifested in face sensitivity, sociality rights, and obligations; 2) salmon-related discursive strategies used for in- and out-group identification; 3) how age differences provoke norms and expectations for group identification. The expected outcome would contribute to the theoretical development of RMM by incorporating group-based relational practice on CMC and add to our understanding of how ideas and ideals of "young" and "old" are social-mediated over issues of concern.

"„Ist mir eigentlich egal, was da passiert” – Nutzungspraktiken und Einstellungen gering informationsorientierter junger Menschen"

Leonie Wunderlich, Sascha Hölig

Immer mehr Menschen in Deutschland haben immer weniger Interesse an Nachrichten und nutzen diese seltener (Behre, Hölig & Möller, 2023). Das betrifft vor allem junge Menschen: Unter Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen gibt es eine zunehmend große Gruppe, die ein geringes Interesse an klassischen Nachrichtenthemen hat, entsprechend kaum Informationsangebote etablierter Anbieter nutzt und sich selbst als gering informiert einschätzt (Wunderlich & Hölig, 2022; Fletcher et al., 2023). Dieser Informationstyp steht in der Regel mit soziodemografischen Merkmalen wie einer niedrigen formalen Bildung (Jäckel & Wollscheid, 2006) und einem Migrationshintergrund im Zusammenhang (Worbs, 2010). Aus demokratietheoretischer Perspektive kann diese Entwicklung als problematisch eingestuft werden, da diese Personen sich in der Regel auch weniger für Politik interessieren und weniger an politischen Prozessen teilnehmen (Fletcher et al., 2023; Strömback, Djerf-Pierre, & Shehata, 2013).

Es werden daher dringend Einsichten in die Hintergründe der Nutzungspraktiken und Einstellungen dieser jungen Menschen benötigt. Bedingt durch ein geringes Interesse und latentes Misstrauen gegenüber sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschung sowie Sprachbarrieren auf der administrativen Ebene gestaltet sich der Zugang zu dieser Teilgruppe jedoch als schwierig (Wolffersdorff-Ehlert, 1995). In der vorliegenden Studie wurde eine qualitative Erhebung konzipiert, im Rahmen derer die Informationsbedürfnisse, Nutzungspraktiken und Einstellungen gegenüber Medien und Journalismus von gering informationsorientierten jungen Menschen differenziert untersucht werden sollen. Es wurden unterschiedliche Indikatoren herangezogen, um in Kooperation mit Jugendeinrichtungen geeignete Teilnehmende zu identifizieren. Insgesamt wurden zehn Fokusgruppen mit Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen zwischen 14 und 22 Jahren (N=46) in den Städten Hamburg, Bottrop (Nordrhein-Westphalen), Dresden (Sachsen) und Nürnberg (Bayern) durchgeführt.

Die Erkenntnisse der Fokusgruppen weisen auf eine geringe Relevanz von traditionellen Nachrichtenthemen und Medienquellen hin, der folgende Sichtweisen und Bewertungen der Teilnehmenden zugrunde liegen: eine in den Medien vorherrschende generelle Voreingenommenheit/Parteilichkeit gegenüber bestimmten Themen, die Berichterstattung überwiegend negativer Ereignisse und/oder einschränkender Stereotypen, eine zu starke Betonung einzelner Themen bei gleichzeitigem Ver- schweigen bzw. Weglassen anderer wichtigerer Themen sowie eine Dominanz bestimmter Rahmungen und die Meinungsvorgabe bei einzelnen Themen. In der Folge wenden sich diese jungen Menschen neuen Akteuren in sozialen Medien zu, die ihre Informationsbedürfnisse befriedigen und relevante Alltagsthemen für sie glaubwürdig rüberbringen. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse der Fokusgruppen werden Implikationen für Journalismus und Bildungsinitiativen diskutiert.

Behre, J. Hölig, S, Möller, J. (2023). Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2023 - Ergebnisse für Deutschland. Hamburg: Verlag Hans-Bredow-Institut, Juni 2023 (Arbeitspapiere des Hans-Bredow-Instituts | Projektergebnisse Nr. 67).
Jäckel, M. & Wollscheid, S. (2006). Mediennutzung von Kindern und Jugendlichen im familialen Kontext, Media Perspektiven, 11/2006, S. 585-594.
Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Eddy, K., Robertson, C.T. & Nielsen, R. K. (2023). Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2023. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
Strömback, J., Djerf-Pierre, M., & Shehata, A. (2013). The dynamics of political interest and news media consumption: A longitudinal perspective. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 25(4), 414-435. doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/eds018
Wunderlich, Leonie & Hölig, Sascha (2022). Types of Information Orientation and Information Levels among Young and Old News Audiences. Media and Communication, 10(3), 104-117. DOI: doi.org/10.17645/mac.v10i3.5293 Wolffersdorff-Ehlert, C. (1995). Zugangsprobleme bei der Erforschung von Randgruppen. In Uwe Flick, Ernst von Kardorff, Reiner Keupp, Lutz von Rosenstiel & Stephan Wolff (Hrsg.): Handbuch qualitative Sozialforschung: Grundlagen, Konzepte, Methoden und Anwendungen, S. 388-391.
Worbs, S. (2010). Mediennutzung von Migranten in Deutschland. Berlin: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge Working Paper 34.

"The dietary world of TikToK as can be experienced by children"

Michal Yaron, Nelly Elias

Research literature highlights the powerful link between social media use, body concerns and eating disturbances, which have become a salient experience of childhood and adolescence, particularly among girls. In this respect, the nutritional landscape of TikTok has received so far limited attention, and its dietary content is mostly unknown. Filling this gap is of particular importance, due to TikTok's young and vulnerable demographics and its unique architecture, which provides users with algorithmically selected content. This paper, therefore, is a novel attempt to examine what kind of nutrition and weight-related content children and adolescents might be exposed to on TikTok.

While applying qualitative content analysis, this study examined 300 videos recommended by the TikTok algorithm. A new user account was created with a fake name, date of birth compatible with 13 years of age, and a female gender. Videos were gathered during three separate weeks of viewings to account for changing trends. Inclusion criteria were any reference to healthy eating, diet, weight loss, fat loss, mass eating, nutrition, nutritional values, emotional eating and eating disorders. Videos were analyzed according to five themes: (1) 'body shaping'; (2) 'food as comfort'; (3) 'food as challenge'; (4) 'nutritional knowledge'; (5) 'diet mentality'.

The analysis revealed the complex, diversified and confusing dietary world that can be experienced by a TikTok user claiming to be 13 years of age. Content is dominated by nonprofessionals, presenting information and recommendations that are sometimes inaccurate or not age appropriate. Messages are oftentimes contradicting, reflecting very different approaches - from rigid diet mentality through diet in-disguise to anti-diet approach; from body shaping to 'body positivity'; and from striving to not overeat to struggling to eat and overcome eating disorders. Being exposed to such content, a young girl might learn to believe that calories are more important than nutritional value, that emotional eating is the broadly accepted social norm, and that body shape is a crucial issue that young people are concerned with. Typically viewed without adult mediation, such videos may have long-term implications for how children acquire knowledge and form perceptions about nutrition, diet, and health in general.

"TikTok and Algospeak: a new frontier for deliberate linguistic innovation"

Erynn Young

With social media platforms' increasing reliance on algorithmic systems to moderate content and enforce user behavior guidelines, users increasingly manipulate their language to evade algorithmic scrutiny and consequent censorship and/or deplatforming. This study explores the phenomenon of deliberate linguistic manipulation in response to algorithmic content moderation on TikTok, called algospeak, to develop an emergent taxonomy of multimodal, linguistic manipulation strategies that users deploy to evade algorithmic scrutiny and navigate content visibility and maintain open communicative channels on TikTok. Communicative content from English-speaking TikTok users was collected and analyzed using analysis-by-synthesis in order to identify the manipulative mechanisms in action and to inductively build a taxonomy of deployed strategies. Broader strategy categories also emerge during this process of data analysis whereby similar substrategies for manipulation are grouped together. This taxonomy is contextualized within broader considerations of deliberate linguistic manipulation as a strategic communicative resource (such as i.e. code-switching, secret languages), differently applied in response to variable communicative and technological affordances and constraints, as well as users' folk imaginaries of algorithmic content moderation systems. This study also addresses some of the implications of content moderation on language and expression on digital platforms like TikTok, highlighting some limitations of current algorithmic content moderation practices when faced against user creativity, agency, and adaptability. The study contributes to ongoing discourse surrounding digital speech and the difficulty of moderating language as a proxy for content by illuminating the dynamic relationship between algorithmic content moderation and deliberate linguistic manipulation. The resultant taxonomy of algospeak strategies provides a useful heuristic tool for further research into the functionally expansive applications of algospeak by users across interactions.

Keywords: TikTok, language variation, deliberate linguistic manipulation, content moderation, algorithms

"The Media Lives of Young People and ChatGPT Creativity" (Poster)

Christian Gilde

The introduction of the ChatGPT medium creates new opportunities in just about every domain, such as creativity and the media world. Because of these and other pertinent issues, a media investigation in the context of young- people generated creativity and AI (ChatGPT) generated creativity could provide more insight into the creativity paradigm and its assessment. This exploratory research tests how ChatGPT performs on a standard creativity test versus young human creative production, focusing especially on the measure of originality. In addition, this methodological approach asks ChatGPT to respond to the same creative, alternative use task. This exploratory approach utilizes human scorers to evaluate both the young person and ChatGPT responses by employing standard Torrance metrics to assess creative abilities and strengths. It also asks ChatGPT to evaluate both the student and ChatGPT responses for young respondents' markers of creative thinking. It seems that when young people respond to an alternative use task and ChatGPT responds to an alternative use task, similarities can be detected, especially in the context of originality.

"Die Figur ‚Influencer‘ auf TikTok: Spielen ist arbeiten ist spielen." (Poster)

Meike Hein

Influencer*innen sind fester Bestandteil der mediatisierten Lebenswelten Jugendlicher. Im Rahmen meiner Forschung wird die Identitätskonstruktion von, und durch jugendliche Influencer*innen aus zwei Perspektiven betrachtet: Spiel und Arbeit. Dabei orientiere ich mich am Konzept des Serious Gaming von Beate Ochsner et. al., dass „an der Leitdifferenz zwischen Spielen und Arbeiten ansetz[t], ohne jedoch die eine oder die andere Seite der Unterscheidung hervorzuheben“1 und die „spezifischen Praktiken und Situationen“2 in den Vordergrund rückt, „die Serious Gaming in operativen Verschaltungen von Gamification und Workification als stets neues und flexibles Differenzprodukt zwischen Spielen und Arbeiten hervorbringen.“3 Deshalb fokussiere ich die plattformspezifischen Arbeits- und Spielpraktiken von jugendlichen Influencer*innen auf TikTok am Beispiel des TikTok-Accounts videozeugs. Indem videozeugs‘ Umgang mit der Plattform als Serious Gaming perspektiviert wird, wird die komplexe Verwobenheit von Arbeit und Spiel auf TikTok beschreibbar.

In Anlehnung an Hartmut Winkler perspektiviere ich die Plattform TikTok als „ein Medium des ›Oder‹“4, als „bereits zugerüstet[er]“5 Möglichkeitsraum, in dem „nur vorformulierte Alternativen zur Auswahl“6 stehen. Die Plattform ist somit als in den Infrastrukturen unsichtbarer, aber aktiver Akteur an den Aushandlungen von Spiel- und Arbeitspraktiken der Nutzenden beteiligt. Aus medienkulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive betrachte ich videozeugs weniger als jugendliche Influencerin und soziales Individuum, sondern als soziotechnischer Teil eines medialen Gefüges, hervorgebracht in und durch die Plattform TikTok und deren Medienpraktiken. Die Figur ‚Influencer‘ bildet sich als mediale Funktion auf TikTok heraus, es entsteht „ein neuer Performancetypus, eine besondere Kategorie von ‚Persönlichkeiten’, deren Existenz eine Funktion der Medien selbst ist.“7Auf ihrem TikTok-Account videozeugs lässt die 19-jährige Feli ihre 3,8 Millionen Follower*innen täglich an ihrem Leben teilhaben. Dabei ‚spielt‘ sie die Rolle der ‚großen Schwester‘, die den Follower*innen mit Tipps für Herzensangelegenheiten, Beauty und Gesundheit zur Seite steht. videozeugs ‚bespielt‘ die Plattform allerdings nicht ‚nur‘ als ‚Schwester‘ für ihre Follower*innenschaft, sondern steht als Influencerin mit Accounts auf Instagram und YouTube;

1 Beate Ochsner, Judith Willkomm, Harald Waldrich und Markus Spöhrer: „Serious Gaming“ – oder Spielen ernst nehmen. Ein Forschungsprogramm. In: Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft, 15 (1) 2023, S. 128-129.
2 Ebd., S. 129.
3 Ebd.
4 Hartmut Winkler: Don’t be a Maybe. Entscheidungslust, Entscheidungsdruck und Entscheidungsnot unter den Bedingungen der Moderne. In: Tobias Conradi, Florian Hoof, Rolf F. Nohr (Hrsg.): Medien der Entscheidung, Münster 2016, S. 220.
5 Ebd., S. 218.
6 Ebd.
7 Donald Horton, Richard R. Wohl: Massenkommunikation und parasoziale Interaktion. Beobachtungen zur Intimität über Distanz. In: Grundlagentexte zur Fernsehwissenschaft: Theorie, Geschichte, Analyse 2001, S. 76.

"KI gestützte Traumapädagogik durch individualisierte Geschichten zum vorlesen" (Poster)

Jochen Hotstegs

Die Förderung der Schlafhygiene bei Kindern und Jugendlichen stellt einen wesentlichen Aspekt für ihre körperliche und geistige Entwicklung dar (Müller 2022) und gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung in der Traumapädagogik. In Anbetracht der technologischen Fortschritte der vergangenen Jahre sind innovative digitale Anwendungen auch für die Traumapädagogik entstanden. Insbesondere das fortschrittliche Sprachmodell ChatGPT sowie KI-Kunst-Tools wie Midjourney oder Stable Diffusion eröffnen neue Möglichkeiten. Diese Systeme ermöglichen es Kindern und Jugendlichen, eigenständig zu agieren und ihre eigenen kreativen Vorstellungen umzusetzen.

Im Rahmen der Traumapädagogik spielen die Schlafhygiene und die Bewältigung von Schlafstörungen eine zentrale Rolle (Müller, M. 2022). Um Kindern und Jugendlichen einen erholsamen und angenehmen Schlaf zu ermöglichen, wurden verschiedene bewährte Methoden entwickelt und in der Praxis erprobt. Eine klassische Methode besteht beispielsweise darin, den Kindern Gute-Nacht-Geschichten vorzulesen (Ehmig 2014). Diese Geschichten können entweder aus bereits vorhandenen Büchern stammen oder von den Kindern und Jugendlichen selbst entworfen werden. Mithilfe von KI-Systemen können individualisierte Gute-Nacht-Geschichten erstellt werden, indem grundlegende Parameter wie Namen, Eigenschaften und Hobbys in Verbindung mit einer groben Idee für die Geschichte kombiniert werden. Dadurch lassen sich die Geschichten an das individuelle Schlafverhalten und die spezifischen traumatischen Erfahrungen der einzelnen Personen anpassen und tragen somit maßgeblich zur Förderung und Sprachentwicklung bei (Wirth 2020). Das zugrundeliegende traumapädagogische Konzept besteht darin, den Kindern durch Bereitstellung einer sicheren und vertrauensvollen Umgebung bei der Bewältigung ihrer traumatischen Erfahrungen zu unterstützen. Die personalisierten Einschlafgeschichten ermöglichen es den Kindern, eine emotionale Verbindung zu den Charakteren und Ereignissen in der Geschichte herzustellen, was ihnen hilft, ihre eigenen Gefühle und Erfahrungen zu erkunden und zu verarbeiten. Gleichzeitig erleben die Kinder und Jugendliche sich durch den Einsatz der digitalen Tools als Selbstwirksam in Bezug auf ihr Schlafverhalten und ihre Traumatisierung. Durch das Anhören der personalisierten Geschichten können Kinder ihre Gedanken beruhigen, sich entspannen und eine ruhige Atmosphäre schaffen, die den Schlaf fördert.

Im Rahmen eines Projektes wird dieses Verfahren im Neukirchener Erziehungsverein in traumapädagogischen Wohngruppen eingesetzt. Das Projekt gliedert sich in drei Phasen: Konzept Erprobung, Wirksamkeitsprüfung, Konsolidierung. Aktuell befindet sich das Projekt in der Konzepterprobung. In dieser Phase wird mit fünf Kindern und Jugendlichen die Technik erprobt und werden die Abläufe getestet. Zur Wirksamkeitsprüfung wird auf eine qualitative Analyse mittels Schlaftagebücher zurückgegriffen. Anhand der ersten Daten werden die Möglichkeiten, Potentiale und Herausforderungen dargestellt.

Ehmig, S. (2014). Mehr als Kuscheln und schöne Geschichten. Zur Rolle des Vorlesens für die Entwicklung von Kindern. In: Frühe Kindheit. 6. S. 38-45
Müller, M. (2022). Schlafstörungen aus psychiatrischer Sicht. In: psychopraxis. Neuropraxis. 25. S. 16-25.
Müller, Z. (2022). Einflussfaktoren auf das Schlafverhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen in einer Risikostichprobe. Leipzig: Universität Leipzig.
Wirth, A. et al. (2020). Das Vorleseverhalten von Eltern mit Kindern in den ersten drei Lebensjahren in Zusammenhang mit familiärer Lernumwelt und Sprachentwicklung. In: Frühe Bildung. 9. S. 26-32.

"The Extent of Cultural Interaction among Young Foreign Language Learners through Digital Games" (Poster)

Ezgi Inal, Murat Topal, Esin Inal

"Digital Game Based Language Learning (DGBLL)" is an area of academic interest for researchers in the literature (Xu et al., 2020). Many players interact with other players and the game environment using a foreign language that is not their mother language (Reinders & Wattana, 2015). Beyond this, cultural interaction emerges as a result of interaction, especially in online games. Especially some variants of online game can provide learners to develop a deeper understanding of the target foreign language when cultural elements such as history, literature, art, music, and social practices incorporate into the game design (Salomão et al., 2015; Hung et al., 2018). Young people are one of the most active groups in playing digital games and especially online games, therefore often they act to learn a foreign language in order to have fun and somehow succeed in the game they are playing. (Jabbari & Eslami, 2019). Some of the digital games have potential to help players acquire cultural knowledge, develop intercultural literacy, and understand different geopolitical spaces (Shliakhovchuk & Muñoz García, 2020). Although some of them, could provide cultural exchange by team-strategy quests and collaborative in-game environments (Lin et al., 2023). In this study, the elements of cultural interaction among young people who learn a foreign language through digital games will be examined through qualitative research (case study). Researchers conducted interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire with 36 individuals aged 12-22 who play an online digital game regularly at least six hours per week. The prominent elements of the interview were itemized and the experiences of the young people who directly benefit from digital games in the language learning process and the extent of their cultural interactions were determined within the framework of which elements and to what extent.

Keywords: Digital games, online games, young people, cultural interaction, foreign language learning.

Hung, H. T., Yang, J. C., Hwang, G. J., Chu, H. C., & Wang, C. C. (2018). A scoping review of research on digital game-based language learning. Computers & Education, 126, 89-104.
Jabbari, N., & Eslami, Z. R. (2019). Second language learning in the context of massively multiplayer online games: A scoping review. ReCALL, 31(1), 92-113.
Lin, S., Xu, Z., & Xie, Z. (2023). Cultural diversity in semi-virtual teams: A multicultural esports team study. Journal of International Business Studies, 1-13.
Park, J., & Wen, R. (2016). A comparative framework for culturally differentiated digital game-based learning. International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, 18(3), 138-149.
Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2015). The effects of digital game play on second language interaction. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT), 5(1), 1-21.
Salomão, R. C. S., Rebelo, F., & Rodríguez, F. G. (2015). Defining personas of university students for the development of a digital educational game to learn Portuguese as a foreing language. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 6214-6222.
Shliakhovchuk, E., & Muñoz García, A. (2020). Intercultural Perspective on Impact of Video Games on Players: Insights from a Systematic Review of Recent Literature. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 20(1), 40-58.
Xu, Z., Chen, Z., Eutsler, L., Geng, Z., & Kogut, A. (2020). A scoping review of digital game-based technology on English language learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68, 877-904.

"Late Adolescence as an Audience: Patterns of Consumption and Media Use in Spain" (Poster)

Vazquez Marquez Israel, Dimitrina J. Semova, Carmen Salgado, Jorge Clemente, Lidia Maestro, Javier Pérez Sánchez, Miguel Álvarez Peralt

The development of new technologies and the widespread adoption of social media have altered how contemporary audiences use and consume audiovisual content (Wee, 2016). Since the arrival of on-demand platforms, the pairing made up of Netflix and the Internet have modified the roots of film distribution, as well as the television industry itself (Bustos & Ruiz, 2020). The multiplication of channels and the diversification and personalization of contents have intensified the fragmentation of the audience in such a way that some authors have even suggest that the term "audience" should be abandoned as an "outdated" concept (Carpentier, Schrøder & Hallet, 2014) while others maintain that the concept is simply evolving (Napoli, 2010; Astigarraga Agirre, Pavon Arrizabalaga & Zuberogoitia Espilla, 2016).

This study is based on the results of a representative survey carried out during the months of March and April 2023 on the consumption of audiovisual content and formats on different platforms with a special focus on young audiences in the 18-24 age group. The survey is part of the MITTR research project on the situation of the audiovisual sector in Spain. Results such as the following need to be discussed and even treated comparatively with other countries in order to get a clearer picture of the situation:

  • The 18-24 year-old audience shares consumption habits, in terms of content and programmes, with later age groups. According to the survey, the top three most preferred content are: 1) Films and series (68,3%); 2) Competitions, game shows and talent shows (38,5%); 3) News (34,6%) and Realities/Factual /Dating shows (34,6%). The difference with the following age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65+) is in the order of preference: from 25 years onwards, news programmes are the second most voted choice. Another difference has to do with the greater interest in reality/dating shows.
  • Mobile is the preferred device for accessing visual content (74%), although TV continues to occupy an important place (63.5%), due to its smart mode which makes it a multi- and cross-platform device.
  • When asked what types of lifestyle programmes and content they consume, the answers were as follows: travel (71.4%), design (50%) and fashion (42.9%).
  • When asked what kind of game shows and talent shows they prefer, young people in the 18-24 age group answer that they prefer those related to: music (62.5%), cooking and food (47.5) and extreme challenges (35%).
  • Reality shows have slightly reduced their preference or popularity. However, according to the survey, young people aged 18-24 and young adults aged 25-34 are the targets where it has the highest penetration. This data coincides with the audience data, where, for example, the Mediaset Group mainly maintains the commercial target in these age groups thanks to its reality shows. These shows are particularly appealing to young people as they are constantly connected to web media and social networks.

Astigarraga Agirre, I., Pavon Arrizabalaga, A. & Zuberogoitia Espilla, A. (2016). Active audience?: interaction of Young people with television and online video content. Communication & Society, 29(3), 133-147.
Bustos Díaz, J. & Ruiz del Olmo, F.J. (2020). Las transformaciones de la audiencia española joven ante el surgimiento de nuevas plataformas audiovisuales. R. Elías Zambrano, & G. Jiménez Marín (Eds.), Reflexiones en torno a la comunicación organizacional, la publicidad y el audiovisual desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar. Fragua, pp. 257-272.
Carpentier, N., Schrøder, K., & Hallet, L. (2014). Audience/society transformations. In N. Carpentier, K. Schrøder, & L. Hallet (Eds.), Audience transformations. Shifting audience positions in late modernity, Routledge, pp. 1-12.
Napoli, P.M. (2010). Audience evolution. New technologies and the transformation of media audiences. Columbia University Press.
Wee, V. (2017). Youth Audiences and the Media in the Digital Era: The Intensification of Multimedia Engagement and Interaction, Cinema Journal, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 133- 139

"Inside the INCELs: Antifeminist ideologies, sentiments, and memes in the digital realm." (Poster)

Julius Keinath

Antifeminist ideologies, sentiments and memes are on the rise in the digital space - the Manosphere preys on insecure, troubled, and toxic masculinity. This trend has led to the emergence of the INCEL (involuntary celibates) community, which espouses ideologies framing women as perpetrators in a war against males. Despite growing academic discourse on the community and its dehumanizing language, there remains a need to delve deeper into the understanding of INCEL members. To address this, four narrative interviews were conducted with individuals currently identifying as INCELs or having rejoiced in the past, from diverse nationalities (Germany, France, and India). Through a qualitative analysis of the biography, radicalization process and the sociocultural background the author argues to anchor the point of radicalization in the adolescence. The heavy impact of the ideology during the subject's youth can be observed. Themes of antisocial behavior, personality disorders and a retreat into the digital realm are present in the results and are backed by quantitative research. The poster will feature excerpts from the interviews, an overview of the (adolescent) INCEL community and an outlook on possible preventive measures and identification of INCELs and their ideologies for youth education professionals.

"The image of a child and a home in memes concerning the Russian attack on Ukraine" (Poster)

Katarzyna Kubowska-Krawczyk

In the poster session, I will present research on the transformation of media in the construction of young people's evaluation of events related to the ongoing war in Ukraine. Particularly interesting is the process of transforming verbal messages into pictorial ones. I will focus on the child's image and the home's immediate space in memes and graphics related to the ongoing war appearing on social media (primarily Facebook and Instagram) from 2022 onwards. In my analysis I will refer to concepts such as transmedia storytelling, convergence culture, intertextual comodity, transmedia interaction (Jenkins, H., & Deuze, M. (2008); (Marshall, D. (2002); Pinchevski, A. (2019) etc.) I will also show the results of an analysis of the means of developing empathy in a young person (Fernandez-Quintanilla, C. (2020); Keen, S. (2006), (2011)).

"Navigating digital disparities: Exploring new media usage in Slovak children, youth, and young adults from vulnerable groups" (Poster)

Magdalena Petrnosova

In today's rapidly evolving digital landscape, access to and effective utilization of new media have become integral to various aspects of life. However, in Slovakia these opportunities are still not equally distributed among individuals, not even in the youngest generation (<25 years), with socioeconomic status, gender and education level remaining important factors in lived inequalities offline and online. Furthermore, there are other vulnerable youth groups we have little or no data about. Building on our previous research efforts, we have initiated a targeted project centered around children, youth, and young adults (aged 10-25 years) falling into three distinct categories: 1) members of ethnic minorities, 2) individuals with disabilities, and 3) those hailing from families with low socioeconomic status. The primary objective of this endeavor is to comprehensively assess the opportunities, scope, forms, genuine psychological advantages, and obstacles related to the new media usage among these potentially vulnerable young people. In this paper, we present and discuss the preliminary findings obtained from semi-structured interviews, offering valuable insights into the digital landscape as experienced by them. Keywords: New media, digital divide, children, youth, young adults

"BookTok als literarische Praxis junger Lesender und ihr lesedidaktisches Potenzial" (Poster)

Christina Sam

BookTok nimmt maßgeblich Einfluss auf das literarische Handeln von jungen Lesenden - online und offline. Das zeigt nicht zuletzt der kommerzielle Erfolg von auf TikTok häufig diskutierten Titeln. In Anbetracht dieses Einflusses stellt sich die Frage, welche literarischen Handlungsmuster auf der Plattform zu beobachten sind und wie diese für den Literaturunterricht genutzt werden können. Hierfür wurden zunächst etwa 500 TikToks in Bezug auf Inhalt und Funktion analysiert, um die auf BookTok vorhandenen Handlungsmuster zu ermitteln. In einem zweiten Schritt wurden für die jeweiligen Muster 'prototypische' Videos einer Detailanalyse unterzogen, während der u.a. unter Rückgriff auf deutschdiaktische Erkenntnisse lesedidaktische Potenziale formuliert wurden, die Leseförderung unter Einbezug der gefundenen Handlungsmuster ermöglichen sollen. Hierbei sind jene Muster, die Lesen inszenieren, also einen performativen Charakter aufweisen, hervorzuheben: Sie bieten die Möglichkeit, performativ-inszenierende Lesestrategien zur Unterstützung der globalen Kohärenzbildung zu entwickeln sowie Lesekulturen in der Schule zu fördern. Konkret birgt u.a. das Handlungsmuster der Empfehlung großes didaktisches Potenzial, sowohl in Bezug auf die Individualisierung der Lektüre als auch im Sinne eines handlungs- und produktionsorientierten Literaturunterrichts. Neben den konkreten Handlungsmustern lässt sich allerdings auch eine für TikTok spezifische übergreifende Tendenz zum emotional vertieften Lesen beobachten, die im Unterricht thematisiert und etwa als Ausgangspunkt für die Unterstützung ästhetischer Erfahrung genutzt werden kann. Bei den formulierten Potenzialen handelt es sich um aus der Analyse abgeleitete Aussagen, die es in weiteren Schritten freilich zu erproben gilt.

"Wie und was erleben Jugendliche auf Social Media?" - Fallbasierte Mikroanalyse zum Interaktionsverhalten der Gen Z auf Social Media (Poster)

Mira Schienagel

Angehörige der Generation Z (geboren 1997 bis 2012) (The Pew Research Center 2018) haben Social Media in ihren Tagesablauf integriert (Dadic 2022), deren Inhalt geprägt ist von interaktiven Kommunikationsformen (Frederking 2022). Dabei können sie RezipientInnen und/oder ProduzentInnen sein, wodurch sich im digitalen Handeln (Multi-)Perspektiven ergeben (Stalder 2016:16ff). Folgende Fragen werden fokussiert: Wie reflektieren Heranwachsende Social Media zur Konstruktion von sozialen Beziehungen und Herstellung von Wirklichkeit/en? Wie wirken sich technische Schaltflächen auf die Bewertungen der präsentierten und geteilten Inhalte aus? Welche Erfahrungen entstehen im Umgang mit Social Media Content? Dazu werden drei Jugendliche (16 bis 23 Jahre) ein halbes Jahr begleitet, indem diese selbst gewählte Medieninhalte ihrer privat genutzten Social Media Kanäle mit der Forscherin teilen und reflektieren. Für die Gewinnung und Analyse der Daten werden abwechselnd ethnographische (teilnehmende Beobachtung) und sozialwissenschaftliche Methoden (Inhaltsanalyse) kombiniert (Breidenstein et al. 2020). Die gesammelten personenbezogenen Datensätze erfordern ein gegenseitiges Vertrauensverhältnis, weshalb die Auswahl auf drei TeilnehmerInnen begrenzt wird. Das Ziel ist durch mikrobasierte Erkenntnisse spezifische Charakteristika im Erleben der Gen Z auf Social Media zu erkennen, um konkrete Handlungsimpulse für den Deutschunterricht entwickeln zu können.

Breidenstein, G. et al. (2020): Ethnografie. Die Praxis der Feldforschung. München: UVK Verlag.
Dadic, M. (2022): Behavior of Generation Z. Conference: International Academic Conference on Management, Economics and Marketing in Vienna, www.researchgate.net/publication/366356186_Behavior_of_Generation_Z [25.07.2023]
Frederking, V.; Krommer, A. (2022): Sprachliche, literarische und mediale Bildung in der digitalen Welt. In: Frederking, V.; Romeike, R. (Hg.): Fachliche Bildung in der digitalen Welt. Digitalisierung, Big Data und KI im Forschungsfokus von 15 Fachdidaktiken. Allgemeine Fachdidaktik. Band 3. Münster, New York: Waxmann, S. 82- 120.
Stalder, F. (2016): Kultur der Digitalität. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
The Pew Research Center (2018), Defining generations: Where Millennials end and Generation Z begins www.pewresearch.org/short-reads/2019/01/17/where-millennials-end-and-generation-z-begins/ [25.07.2023]

"How media repertoires change with age: a study with Portuguese children and young people" (Poster)

Margarida Toscano, Sara Pereira, Daniel Brandão

This paper aims to present and discuss the media repertoires of a sample of 1131 Portuguese children and young people aged between 11 and 18 years old. Media repertoires, as stated previously by Hasebrink and Popp (2006) "can be understood as integral part of lifestyles and they have to be interpreted with regard to their practical meaning" (p. 374), being conceived as "comprehensive patterns of media use" (p. 374). Therefore, by following this perspective we aim to present a broad picture of children's everyday media uses and experiences and to analyse the aspects that are more enjoyable and less interesting to them. Our aim is to map out the typical media repertoires of three different age groups that comprise three different levels of schooling: 11 to 12- year-olds ( 6th grade), 15-16 (9th grade) and 17-18 (12th grade)

- and observe which media they use and which they don't and why; what remains and what changes with age, the differences and the similarities between the three groups. These repertoires give us information about the combination of all the media used and the roles they play in their daily lives, rather than just focusing on each medium separately. /// Results show that the media repertoires of students in each year of schooling show significant similarities, although some media become more important in the lives of older students. Despite the variety of media available to them, mobile phones and the Internet are the most important. Books, that are important in 6th grade, lose their importance in subsequent years of school. Surprisingly, social networks (SN), where they spend the majority of their time, were ranked relatively low by all three groups. The realizations that they spend a lot of time on SN may have resulted in answers that are contradictory with their consumption practices. The computer is of little importance, and its primary role is entertainment; only a few students in the 12th grade use it for work, which is very surprising. Newspapers, radio, and magazines are given very little weight in all three school years. All of the students' primary media roles are very similar. The role that stands out is entertainment; information is associated with media which they place little emphasis on. The Internet is mentioned as an information medium, but it is far less important than entertainment.

The media repertoires approach allows us to consider, in an integrated manner, the set of media that children and young people use and for what purposes. However, we conclude from this study that the repertoires of the sample are not very diverse, focusing primarily on the mobile phone and the Internet, mainly for entertainment purposes.

This presentation is based on data coming from an online questionnaire administered in 2022 in 26 schools of mainland Portugal involving 1131 children and young people, as mentioned before. It is part of the research project bYou - Study on children and young people´s experiences and expressions of the media, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (PTDC/COM-OUT/3004/2020).

Hasebrink, U. & Popp, J. (2006). Media repertoires as a result of selective media use. A conceptual approach tothe analysis of patterns of exposure. Communications, 31 (3), 369-387. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1515/COMMUN.2006.023